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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Gyð 7VII/1 — fór ‘went’

Vellauðgan fór vallar
viggbeitir þá Meita
einráð var það eyðis
armlinns — gyðing finna.
Beiddi blára odda......
brak-Njörðr …
hodda láns af hánum
hugprúðr og fiesnúðar.

Meita vallar viggbeitir fór þá finna vellauðgan gyðing; það var einráð eyðis armlinns. Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr beiddi láns hodda og fiesnúðar af hánum.

The steerer of the horse of Meiti’s <sea-king> plain [(lit. ‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’) SEA > SHIP > SEAFARER] then went to find a Jew rich in gold; that was the resolution of the destroyer of the arm-serpent [RING > GENEROUS MAN]. The noble Njǫrðr <god> of the crash of dark spear-points [(lit. ‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’) BATTLE > WARRIOR] asked for a loan of gold and for the favour of money from him.

readings

[1] fór: so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]r’ B, ‘(gǫ)r’(?) BRydberg

notes

[1] vellauðgan fór: The ms. is badly damaged, and only ‘Vell…d…r’ can be read with any degree of certainty. The 399a-bˣ copyist was sure of Vellauðgan fór, and this reading has been taken as the basis of the reconstruction here. Vellauðgan is taken as m. acc. sg. of vellauðigr (adj.) ‘well-stocked in gold, rich’, which is construed with m. acc. sg. gyðing ‘Jew’ (l. 4). The same adj. occurs in KormǪ Lv 35/4V. Finnur Jónsson reads ‘Vellbiodr’ in Skj A, but in Skj B reconstructs the first word as m. sg. nom. adj. vellsnauður ‘poorly off for gold’, which he construes with the man-kenning viggbeitir Meita vallar ‘steerer of the horse of Meiti’s plain’ (ll. 1, 2). Kock (NN §2981) again objects to Finnur’s use of the desyllabified -ur in his reconstruction (see Note to 5/5), and emends to the synonymous vella snauðr ‘needy in respect of gold’, in an attempt to regularise the metre. Both emendations are unnecessary, however, since the 399a-bˣ reading makes both semantic and metrical sense.

grammar

Verbs: Strong Verbs

The stem of the subjunctive pl. is i-mutation of the indicative pl..

lúka ‘shut, end’



Indicative Subjunctive


Present Past Present Past

Active voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýk
lýkr
lýkr
lauk
laukt
lauk
lúka
lúkir
lúki
lyka
lykir
lyki
pl. 1
2
3
lúkum
lúkið
lúka
lukum
lukuð
luku
lúkim
lúkið
lúki
lykim
lykið
lyki
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúka
lúkandi
lúkinn, lúkin, lúkit

Middle voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýkumk
lýksk
lýksk
laukumk
laukzk
lauksk
lúkumk
lúkisk
lúkisk
lykumk
lykisk
lykisk
pl. 1
2
3
lúkumk
lúkizk
lúkask
lukumk
lukuzk
lukusk
lúkimk
lúkizk
lúkisk
lykimk
lykizk
lykisk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúkask
lúkandisk
lúkizk
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