skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 4I/1 — fórsk ‘subdued’

Austrlǫndum fórsk undir
allvaldr, sás gaf skǫldum
— hann fekk gagn at gunni —
gunnhǫrga slǫg mǫrgum.
Slíðrtungur lét syngva
sverðleiks reginn — ferðir
sendi gramr at grundu
gollvarpaða* — snarpar.

Allvaldr, sás gaf mǫrgum skǫldum slǫg gunnhǫrga, fórsk undir austrlǫndum; hann fekk gagn at gunni. Reginn sverðleiks lét snarpar slíðrtungur syngva; gramr sendi ferðir gollvarpaða* at grundu.

The mighty ruler, who gave many poets strikers of battle-temples [SHIELDS > WEAPONS], subdued eastern lands; he gained success in war. The god of sword-play [BATTLE > WARRIOR] made keen scabbard-tongues [SWORDS] sing; the prince sent troops of gold-throwers [GENEROUS MEN] to the ground.

readings

[1] fórsk undir: so J2ˣ, 61, fezk undir , ‘forst vndir’ F, ‘forskyndir’ J1ˣ, ‘for skendir’ Bb, ‘forst undar’ Flat

notes

[1] fórsk undir ‘subdued’: Farask normally means ‘perish, die’ (LP: fara B), but this cannot be the sense here. (a) Kock (NN §256) takes austrlǫndum as a dat. object of farask undir which he translates as lägga under sig ‘subdue’, citing the parallel hann fersk foldu grœnni undir ‘he subdues the green earth’ (GunnLeif Merl I 25VIII); this is adopted here, as also by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26). (b) Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) reads fórsk undir slǫg, translating vovede sig under våbnene ‘risked his life against weapons’, and takes austrlǫndum as a locative dat. i de østlige lande ‘in the eastern lands’. Such a use of the dat. is possible, but restricted even in poetry (NS §117).

grammar

Verbs: Strong Verbs

The stem of the subjunctive pl. is i-mutation of the indicative pl..

lúka ‘shut, end’



Indicative Subjunctive


Present Past Present Past

Active voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýk
lýkr
lýkr
lauk
laukt
lauk
lúka
lúkir
lúki
lyka
lykir
lyki
pl. 1
2
3
lúkum
lúkið
lúka
lukum
lukuð
luku
lúkim
lúkið
lúki
lykim
lykið
lyki
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúka
lúkandi
lúkinn, lúkin, lúkit

Middle voice
sing. 1
2
3
lýkumk
lýksk
lýksk
laukumk
laukzk
lauksk
lúkumk
lúkisk
lúkisk
lykumk
lykisk
lykisk
pl. 1
2
3
lúkumk
lúkizk
lúkask
lukumk
lukuzk
lukusk
lúkimk
lúkizk
lúkisk
lykimk
lykizk
lykisk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
lúkask
lúkandisk
lúkizk
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