skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon (ÓT) 1I/5 — kveðk ‘I declare it’

Nú hefr stafnval Stefnis
— straumr ferr of hol knerri —
felliveðr af fjalli
fjallrœnt brotit allan.
Heldr kveðk víst, at valdi
— vesa munu bǫnd í landi —
— geisar ô með ísi —
ásríki gný slíkum.

Nú hefr fjallrœnt felliveðr brotit allan stafnval Stefnis; straumr ferr af fjalli of hol knerri. Kveðk heldr víst, at ásríki valdi slíkum gný; bǫnd munu vesa í landi; ô geisar með ísi.

Now destructive weather from the mountain has smashed the whole stem-steed [SHIP] of Stefnir; the torrent flows from the mountain over the hull of the vessel. I declare it rather certainly that divine power may cause such tumult; the gods must be in the land; the river is gushing with ice.

readings

[5] kveðk víst (‘kveð ek vist’): kveð víst Bb, getu vér Hb

grammar

Weak verbs: Type 1

berja ‘fight’


IndicativeSubjunctiveImp.


PresentPastPresentPastPres.


Active voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
ber
berr
berr
berjum
berjið
berja
barða
barðir
barði
bǫrðum
bǫrðuð
bǫrðu
berja
berir
beri
berim
berið
beri
berða
berðir
berði
berðim
berðið
berði

ber

berjum
berið
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
berja
berjandi
bar(i)t


Middle voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
berjumk
bersk
bersk
berjumk
berizk
berjask
bǫrðumk
barðisk
barðisk
bǫrðumk
bǫðuzk
bǫrðusk
berjumk
berisk
berisk
berimk
berizk
berisk
berðumk
berðisk
berðisk
berðimk
berðizk
berðisk

bersk

berjumk
berizk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
berjask
berjandisk
bar(i)zk

heyra ‘hear’


IndicativeSubjunctiveImp.


PresentPastPresentPastPres.


Active voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
heyri
heyrir
heyrir
heyrum
heryið
heyra
heyrða
heyrðir
heyrði
heyrðum
heyrðuð
heyrðu
heyra
heyrir
heyri
heyrim
heyrið
heyri
heyrða
heyrðir
heyrði
heyrðim
heyrðið
heyrði

heyr

heyrum
heyrið
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
heyra
heyrandi
heyr(i)t


Middle voice
sing.


pl.
1
2
3
1
2
3
heyrumk
heyrisk
heyrisk
heyrumk
heyrizk
heyrask
heyrðumk
heyrðisk
heyrðisk
heyrðumk
heyrðuzk
heyrðusk
heyrumk
heyrisk
heyrisk
heyrimk
heyrizk
heyrisk
heyrðumk
heyrðisk
heyrðisk
heyrðimk
heyrðizk
heyrðisk

heyrsk

heyrumk
heyrizk
infinitive
pres. part.
past part.
heyrask
heyrandisk
heyrzk
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