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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorf Lv 2I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorfinnr munnr, Lausavísur 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 847.

Þorfinnr munnrLausavísur
12

This is one of an unusual cluster of three powerful stanzas spoken in anticipation of the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad, 1030), and it is preserved in the same texts: see Introduction to Gizsv Lv.

Røkkr at regni miklu
randar garðs ins harða;
vill við vísa snjallan
Verdœla lið berjask.
Verjum allvald ǫrvan;
ǫlum teitan mô sveita;
fellum Þrœndr í Þundar
— þess eggjumk vér — hreggi.

Røkkr at {miklu regni {ins harða garðs randar}}; lið Verdœla vill berjask við snjallan vísa. Verjum ǫrvan allvald; ǫlum {teitan mô sveita}; fellum Þrœndr í {hreggi Þundar}; vér eggjumk þess.

It grows dim approaching {the great downpour {of the tough enclosure of the shield-rim}} [SHIELD > BATTLE]; the force of the Verdœlir wants to fight against the valiant prince [Óláfr]. Let us defend the generous mighty ruler; let us feed {the cheerful gull of gore} [RAVEN/EAGLE]; let us fell the Þrœndr in {the storm of Þundr <= Óðinn>} [BATTLE]; we are urging this.

Mss: (457r-v) (Hkr); Holm2(64v), 972ˣ(493va-494va), J2ˣ(219v), 321ˣ(245-246), Bæb(4ra), 68(63v), Holm4(59va), 61(122rb), 325V(78ra), 325VII(35v), Bb(195va), Flat(122vb-123ra), Tóm(152v) (ÓH); DG8(99v) (ÓHLeg); 141ˣ(51v) (Fbr)

Readings: [1] Røkkr: reykr 68, Holm4, ‘Ræ̨kkr’ 325VII;    regni: regn 325V    [2] randar: randa J2ˣ, 321ˣ, Bæb, 61, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, DG8, 141ˣ;    ins: hinn 68;    harða: harði 68    [3] við: við viðr 321ˣ, með Bæb, om. 68;    vísa: vísi Flat, 141ˣ, vísan Tóm    [4] Verdœla: verðunga 61;    lið: ‘sid’ Tóm    [5] ǫrvan: ‘[…]uan’ Holm4    [6] ǫlum: ǫllum 972ˣ, ‘ollum’ 141ˣ;    teitan: teita Tóm;    mô: ná 321ˣ, Bæb, 68    [7] fellum: fellim 321ˣ;    Þrœndr: ‘þręnd’ 325VII;    Þundar: ‘þr[...]dar’ Holm4, ‘þyndar’ Bb, ‘þundu’ DG8    [8] eggjumk: eggjum J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 61, Bb, DG8, eggja Flat, 141ˣ;    vér: nú Bæb, 68, 61, Bb, Tóm, nú added in margin 325VII, ek nú Flat, 141ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 315, Skj BI, 292, Skald I, 149, NN §2015; ÓHLeg 1922, 81, ÓHLeg 1982, 188-9; Hkr 1893-1901, II, 460-1, IV, 163, ÍF 27, 359, Hkr 1991, II, 514-15 (ÓHHkr ch. 206); Fms 5, 57-8, Fms 12, 98, ÓH 1941, I, 545 (ch. 203), Flat 1860-8, II, 341.

Context: In ÓH-Hkr, as for Gizsv Lv. In the less polished context of ÓHLeg, Þorfinnr skald is with the king and speaks the stanza as his troops advance.

Notes: [All]: For the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad) and other skaldic poetry associated with it, see the entry on Óláfr Haraldsson in ‘Ruler biographies’ in Introduction to this volume. — [2] garðs randar ‘of the enclosure of the shield-rim [SHIELD]’: Rǫnd can refer either to a complete shield or to its rim, so if the well-supported gen. pl. reading randa is adopted instead of gen. sg. randar, garðs randa could mean ‘wall of shields, shield-wall’. Either way, Bjarni Aðalbjarnason in ÍF 27 notes the appropriateness of garðs alongside the weather imagery here, since garðr m. can also refer to a bank of cloud. — [4] Verdœla ‘of the Verdœlir’: People of Veradalr (Verdalen, Nord-Trøndelag), in which Stiklestad is situated. — [5-8]: The 1st pers. pl. imperatives in this helmingr (verjum ‘let us defend’, l. 5, ǫlum ‘let us feed’, l. 6, and fellum ‘let us fell’, l. 7) are typical of skaldic exhortations to battle; cf. Anon Liðs 1, Rv Lv 31II, Nefari LvII, Blakkr Lv 1II.  — [7] Þrœndr: The people of Þrándheimr (Trøndelag).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  6. ÓH 1941 = Johnsen, Oscar Albert and Jón Helgason, eds. 1941. Saga Óláfs konungs hins helga: Den store saga om Olav den hellige efter pergamenthåndskrift i Kungliga biblioteket i Stockholm nr. 2 4to med varianter fra andre håndskrifter. 2 vols. Det norske historiske kildeskriftfond skrifter 53. Oslo: Dybwad.
  7. ÓHLeg 1982 = Heinrichs, Anne et al., eds and trans. 1982. Olafs saga hins helga: Die ‘Legendarische Saga’ über Olaf den Heiligen (Hs. Delagard. saml. nr. 8II). Heidelberg: Winter.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  11. ÓHLeg 1922 = Johnsen, Oscar Albert, ed. 1922. Olafs saga hins helga efter pergamenthåndskrift i Uppsala Universitetsbibliotek, Delagardieske samling nr. 8II. Det norske historiske kildeskriftfond skrifter 47. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  12. Internal references
  13. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Legendary Saga of S. Óláfr / Helgisaga Óláfs konungs Haraldssonar (ÓHLeg)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. clxxiii.
  14. Not published: do not cite (ÓHHkrI)
  15. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Liðsmannaflokkr 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1016.
  16. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Gizurr svarti (gullbrárskáld), Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 817.
  17. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘(Introduction to) Nefari, Lausavísa’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 645-6.
  18. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Blakkr, Lausavísur 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 649.
  19. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2009, ‘Rǫgnvaldr jarl Kali Kolsson, Lausavísur 31’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 607-8.
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