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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 7I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 291.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
678

Vasat ofbyrjar ǫrva
odda vífs né drífu
sverða sverrifjarðar
svanglýjaði at frýja.
Brak-Rǫgnir skók bogna
(barg óþyrmir varga)
hagl ór Hlakkar segli
hjǫrs (rakkliga fjǫrvi).

Vasat at frýja {{{sverrifjarðar sverða} svan}glýjaði} {ofbyrjar ǫrva} né {drífu {vífs odda}}. {{Hjǫrs brak-}Rǫgnir} skók {hagl bogna} ór {segli Hlakkar}; {óþyrmir varga} barg rakkliga fjǫrvi.

One did not have to taunt {the delighter {of the swan {of the seething fjord of swords}}} [BLOOD > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR] [into joining] {the strong wind of arrows} [BATTLE] nor {the snow-storm {of the woman of weapon-points}} [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]. {The Rǫgnir <= Óðinn> {of the noise of the sword}} [(lit. ‘noise-Rǫgnir of the sword’) BATTLE > WARRIOR] shook {the hail of bows} [ARROWS] out of {the sail of Hlǫkk <valkyrie>} [SHIELD]; {the crusher of outlaws} [RULER] bravely saved his life.

Mss: (112v), 39(3vb), F(19vb), J1ˣ(67v), J2ˣ(65r) (Hkr); 61(7rb), 325IX 1 a(3ra), Bb(9va) (ÓT); R(34v), Tˣ(35v), W(78), U(33v), A(11v) (SnE, ll. 5-8); 2368ˣ(113), 743ˣ(86v) (LaufE, ll. 5-6)

Readings: [1] Vasat (‘vara’): vant J1ˣ, J2ˣ, veit 61    [2] vífs: ‘nífs’ 325IX 1 a, Bb;    né: í 61, 325IX 1 a, Bb    [3] sverri‑: ‘sværi‑’ 39, ‘svǫrri‑’ F, ‘sverþri‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, sund‑ 325IX 1 a, sund ok Bb;    ‑fjarðar: ‘‑fiarþ(ar)’(?) J1ˣ    [4] svan‑: sval‑ F;    ‑glýjaði: ‘‑glyjaðri’ F, ‑glýjaðr J2ˣ;    at: á J2ˣ;    frýja: flýja Bb    [5] Brak‑: ‘(br)ac‑’(?) 39, brag‑ F;    ‑Rǫgnir: ‑reynir 39, F, ‑rǫknir J1ˣ, J2ˣ, ‑rǫgnir corrected from ‘‑reignir’ W, ‘‑raugna’ U, ‑tognir 2368ˣ, 743ˣ;    skók: skaut R, skóg W, U, hjó 2368ˣ, 743ˣ;    bogna: boga 61, bognum W    [6] barg: bjarg 39, F, barð Tˣ, W;    varga: varða Tˣ, W    [7] hagl: hagls R;    ór: þat er A;    Hlakkar: hlakka 61;    segli: so 61, seglum Kˣ, 39, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325IX 1 a, Bb, R, Tˣ, W, U, A

Editions: Skj AI, 124, Skj BI, 118, Skald I, 66, NN §§394, 395; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 236-7, IV, 67, ÍF 26, 209, Hkr 1991, I, 139 (HGráf ch. 6), F 1871, 90; Fms 1, 56, Fms 12, 32, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 55-6 (ch. 35); SnE 1848-87, I, 430-1, II, 330-1, 441, SnE 1931, 153, SnE 1998, I, 71; LaufE 1979, 371.

Context: For the Context in Hkr and ÓT, see st. 6. SnE cites ll. 5-8 among stanzas illustrating expressions for arrows. Lines 5-6 are cited in LaufE in the section on man-kennings (see Note below).

Notes: [1, 4] vasat at frýja ‘one did not have to taunt’: Frýja normally means ‘reproach’. Here it should be interpreted as ‘to taunt, to provoke’ (see LP: frýja). — [1-2] ofbyrjar ǫrva né drífu vífs odda ‘the strong wind of arrows [BATTLE] nor the snow-storm of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE]’: Finnur Jónsson (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B) switches the determinants: ofbyrjar vífs odda í drífu ǫrva ‘the strong wind of the woman of weapon-points [VALKYRIE > BATTLE] in the snow-storm of arrows [BATTLE]’. There is no apparent reason for this (NN §394). — [2] ‘nor’: The mss of Hkr give adv. here, whereas those of ÓT have prep. í ‘in, into’. Both are possible. Changing the text from to í would seem simpler, so the lectio difficilior has been chosen here (likewise in ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991). — [5, 6]: In LaufE these lines are written as if they are part of Anon (LaufE) 6III (see Note). — [6] óþyrmir varga ‘the crusher of outlaws [RULER]’: Óþyrmir is lit. ‘not-sparer’ (cf. þyrma ‘to spare, respect’). Varga here refers not to wolves but to criminals and robbers living outlawed in the forest like animals. This produces a kenning that refers to the ruler’s duty to ensure law and order in his realm. Cf. also ÞSjár Þórdr 2/1 myrðir varga ‘the killer of outlaws’. It is unnecessary to emend to ofþyrmir varga ‘the excessive sparer of wolves (i.e. their feeder) [WARRIOR]’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). — [7] segli ‘the sail’: Although dat. sg. segli only appears in ms. 61 in place of dat. pl. seglum attested elsewhere, the sg. is chosen here, following most eds except CPB II, 44 and Vell 1865, 13, since it has to be assumed that a warrior carries only one shield.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  7. LaufE 1979 = Faulkes, Anthony, ed. 1979. Edda Magnúsar Ólafssonar (Laufás Edda). RSÁM 13. Vol. I of Two Versions of Snorra Edda from the 17th Century. Reykjavík: Stofnun Árna Magnússonar, 1977-9.
  8. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  9. CPB = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and F. York Powell, eds. 1883. Corpus poeticum boreale: The Poetry of the Old Northern Tongue from the Earliest Times to the Thirteenth Century. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon. Rpt. 1965, New York: Russell & Russell.
  10. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  11. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  12. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  13. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  14. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  15. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  16. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  17. Vell 1865 = Freudenthal, Axel Olof. 1865. Einar Skålaglams Vellekla / öfversatt och förklarad af Axel Olof Freudenthal. Helsingfors: Frenckell.
  18. Internal references
  19. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  20. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  21. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Greatest Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason / Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta (ÓT)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxiii-clxvi.
  22. Not published: do not cite (HGráfII)
  23. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórðr Særeksson (Sjáreksson), Þórálfs drápa Skólmssonar 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 238.
  24. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Stanzas from Laufás Edda 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 643.
  25. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Laufás Edda (LaufE)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
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