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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 3I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1035.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
234

Nefndr ‘named’

2. nefna (verb): mention, name, call

notes

[1] nefndr: efndi: Note aðalhending in an odd line, a minor stylistic licence common in Óldr; see Introduction.

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ungr ‘young’

ungr (adj.): young

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efndi ‘performed [deeds]’

2. efna (verb; °-fnd-): fulfil

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ýta ‘of men’

ýtr (noun m.): man; launcher

kennings

vǫrðr ýta,
‘guardian of men, ’
   = RULER

guardian of men, → RULER
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vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

vǫrðr ýta,
‘guardian of men, ’
   = RULER

guardian of men, → RULER
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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[2] í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’: Garðar (Russia) is referred to as Óláfr’s fóstrjǫrð ‘foster-land’ in st. 4/8. Early Latin and vernacular prose sources report that Óláfr was fostered by King Valdamarr (Vladimir): see HSt Rst 2/2 and Note, and for doubts about the historicity of these accounts, see Introduction to HSt Frag 1.

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Gǫrðum ‘Russia’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

notes

[2] í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’: Garðar (Russia) is referred to as Óláfr’s fóstrjǫrð ‘foster-land’ in st. 4/8. Early Latin and vernacular prose sources report that Óláfr was fostered by King Valdamarr (Vladimir): see HSt Rst 2/2 and Note, and for doubts about the historicity of these accounts, see Introduction to HSt Frag 1.

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œski ‘The wishing’

óska (verb): desire < œskibaldr (noun m.)

kennings

Œski-Baldr stála,
‘The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, ’
   = WARRIOR

The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, → WARRIOR
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Baldr ‘Baldr’

Baldr (noun m.): [Baldr, Baldur] < œskibaldr (noun m.)

kennings

Œski-Baldr stála,
‘The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, ’
   = WARRIOR

The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, → WARRIOR
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Ôleifr ‘[as] Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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fyr ‘to’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[4] fyr mér ‘to me’: This probably means ‘in my presence’, i.e. ‘I was told he was called Óláfr’.

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mér ‘me’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[4] fyr mér ‘to me’: This probably means ‘in my presence’, i.e. ‘I was told he was called Óláfr’.

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stála ‘of steel weapons’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

kennings

Œski-Baldr stála,
‘The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, ’
   = WARRIOR

The wishing Baldr of steel weapons, → WARRIOR
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Eld ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldstøkkvir (noun m.)

kennings

Hafs eldstøkkvir
‘fire-dispenser of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The dispenser of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] hafs eldstøkkvir ‘the dispenser of the fire of the sea [(lit. ‘fire-dispenser of the sea’) GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: Ms. eldstøkkum (m. dat. sg.) ‘fire-smooth, -brittle’ fails to provide sásk ‘feared’ with a subject; nor is the adj.’s meaning apparent. Previous eds have accordingly emended to the agent noun eldstøkkvir ‘fire-dispenser’. Eldstøkkum appears as an inferior variant to eldstøkkvir elsewhere in the corpus (Sturl Lv 2/1IV), and confusion of the abbreviations for -um and -ir is not implausible, though rare in Bb.

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Eld ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire < eldstøkkvir (noun m.)

kennings

Hafs eldstøkkvir
‘fire-dispenser of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The dispenser of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] hafs eldstøkkvir ‘the dispenser of the fire of the sea [(lit. ‘fire-dispenser of the sea’) GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: Ms. eldstøkkum (m. dat. sg.) ‘fire-smooth, -brittle’ fails to provide sásk ‘feared’ with a subject; nor is the adj.’s meaning apparent. Previous eds have accordingly emended to the agent noun eldstøkkvir ‘fire-dispenser’. Eldstøkkum appears as an inferior variant to eldstøkkvir elsewhere in the corpus (Sturl Lv 2/1IV), and confusion of the abbreviations for -um and -ir is not implausible, though rare in Bb.

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støkkvir ‘The dispenser’

støkkvir (noun m.): dispenser, flinger < eldstøkkvir (noun m.)

[5] ‑støkkvir: ‑stǫkkum Bb

kennings

Hafs eldstøkkvir
‘fire-dispenser of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The dispenser of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] hafs eldstøkkvir ‘the dispenser of the fire of the sea [(lit. ‘fire-dispenser of the sea’) GOLD > GENEROUS MAN]’: Ms. eldstøkkum (m. dat. sg.) ‘fire-smooth, -brittle’ fails to provide sásk ‘feared’ with a subject; nor is the adj.’s meaning apparent. Previous eds have accordingly emended to the agent noun eldstøkkvir ‘fire-dispenser’. Eldstøkkum appears as an inferior variant to eldstøkkvir elsewhere in the corpus (Sturl Lv 2/1IV), and confusion of the abbreviations for -um and -ir is not implausible, though rare in Bb.

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sásk ‘feared’

2. sjá (verb): see

[5] sásk: corrected from ‘sakk’ Bb

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ekki ‘nothing’

2. ekki (adv.): not

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ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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snjǫllum ‘of the valiant’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

kennings

snjǫllum syni Tryggva.
‘of the valiant son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the valiant son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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hafs ‘of the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

kennings

Hafs eldstøkkvir
‘fire-dispenser of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The dispenser of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
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hafs ‘of the sea’

haf (noun n.; °-s; *-): sea

kennings

Hafs eldstøkkvir
‘fire-dispenser of the sea’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the sea → GOLD
The dispenser of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
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hilmi ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

hilmi jǫfra;
‘the ruler of princes; ’
   = God

the ruler of princes; → God
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jǫfra ‘of princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

hilmi jǫfra;
‘the ruler of princes; ’
   = God

the ruler of princes; → God
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heimsbyggð ‘the peopled world’

heimsbyggð (noun f.): [peopled world]

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syni ‘son of’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

kennings

snjǫllum syni Tryggva.
‘of the valiant son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the valiant son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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Tryggva ‘Tryggvi’

Tryggvi (noun m.): Tryggvi

kennings

snjǫllum syni Tryggva.
‘of the valiant son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the valiant son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: This helmingr is awkward in several ways. Its word order is convoluted (though see e.g. sts 1/5-8, 10/1-4, 20/5-8, 26). More seriously, efna ‘to perform, carry out’ appears to be intransitive, which is rare at best (LP: efna offers an instance of absolute use in Oddrgr 10/5, but the context there supplies an understood object). These problems can be addressed by emending vǫrðr m. ‘guardian; guardianship, watch’ to acc. sg. vǫrð (so Skj B and Skald), hence œski-Baldr stála, sás ungr efnði vǫrð ýta í Gǫrðum við aldir, vas nefndr Ôleifr fyr mér ‘the wishing Baldr of steel weapons, he who [when] young carried out defence of men in Russia against people, was named to me [as] Óláfr’. The rather unconvincing phrase efna vǫrð ‘carry out defence’ lacks parallels, however, since efna most often combines with a noun referring to oaths or revenge (cf. st. 5/8 and LP, LT: efna). — [2] vǫrðr: Gǫrðum: The same rhyming words appear in HSt Rst 2/2.

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