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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 21I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 21’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1052.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
202122

sté ‘stepped’

stíga (verb): step

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él ‘the blizzard’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

él vigra
‘the blizzard of spears ’
   = BATTLE

the blizzard of spears → BATTLE
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vigra ‘of spears’

3. vigr (noun f.): spear

kennings

él vigra
‘the blizzard of spears ’
   = BATTLE

the blizzard of spears → BATTLE
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grimmr ‘cruel’

grimmr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): fierce

[3] grimmr: ‘grimr’ Bb

notes

[3] grimmr ‘cruel’: The ms. seems to have Grímr, an Óðinn-name, but this makes no sense in the context. Here the single m could be a scribal attempt to regularise the hending, though rhymes of unequal quantity (grimm- : fram-) are in fact quite common in the skaldic corpus (Gade 1995a, 6). See also Note to st. 5/3 ár on single/double consonant spellings in Bb.

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Grábak ‘Grábak (‘Grey-back’)’

grábakr (noun m.): Grey-back

notes

[4] Grábak ‘(“Grey-back”)’: A serpent-name (see LP: Grábakr), used here as a synonym for Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’ (see Note to st. 19/6). Grábakr is one of the mythical serpents that gnaw at the roots of the ash Yggdrasill (Grí 34/6).

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móins ‘of the viper’

Mór (noun m.): serpent

kennings

*akri móins,
‘to the field of the viper, ’
   = GOLD

to the field of the viper, → GOLD
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*akri ‘to the field’

akr (noun m.; °akrs, dat. akri; akrar): field

[4] *akri: ‘vakra’ Bb

kennings

*akri móins,
‘to the field of the viper, ’
   = GOLD

to the field of the viper, → GOLD

notes

[4] *akri ‘to the field’: All previous eds emend ms. ‘vakra’, either to akri, dat. sg. of akr ‘(cultivated) field’, or akra gen. pl. (Sveinbjörn Egilsson 1832, 15). Akra is a smaller emendation, but grimmr ‘cruel’ usually takes a dat. object. ‘Vakra’ could be an inflected form of the adj. vakr ‘nimble’, but no noun in the helmingr is in grammatical agreement with it; or of the horse-name Vakr, but it is difficult to see how this would work in the context.

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ófôum ‘not a few’

ófár (adj.): not a few

[5] ófôum: ‘ofaín’ Bb

notes

[5] ófôum ‘not a few’: Gullberg (1875) takes ms. ófáin as an unattested adj. (f. nom. sg. or n. nom./acc.) ‘uncoloured, dull’ (following the gloss ‘pale, white’ in CVC: fáinn), cf. the p. p. fáinn ‘garish’ (Fritzner: fáinn). This is certainly a lectio difficilior in comparison to ófôum ‘not a few’, and it chimes with the colourful description of the corpses in the following stanza, but it cannot modify dauðum hal (dat. sg.) ‘dead man’ (translated as pl. above in accordance with English idiom) or anything else in the helmingr .

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ýtis ‘of the impeller’

ýtir (noun m.): giver

[5] ýtis: ýtir Bb

kennings

ýtis elds lauðar
‘of the impeller of the fire of the draw-plate ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the draw-plate → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[5] ýtis ‘of the impeller’: A minor emendation, necessary since ms. ýtir (m. nom. sg.) would be a syntactically impossible additional subject for the helmingr’s single finite verb, lét ‘had’. — [6] lauðar ‘of the draw-plate’: Two etymologies have been proposed for lauð f., according to which it is either a hardened metal plate pierced with graduated holes for the drawing of wires, or a metallurgist’s melting-pot (see ÍO: lauð 1); lauð is given as a possible determinant of a gold-kenning in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 61, II, 342).

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elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

ýtis elds lauðar
‘of the impeller of the fire of the draw-plate ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the draw-plate → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

ýtis elds lauðar
‘of the impeller of the fire of the draw-plate ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the draw-plate → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lauðar ‘of the draw-plate’

lauð (noun f.; °-ar): [furnace]

kennings

ýtis elds lauðar
‘of the impeller of the fire of the draw-plate ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the draw-plate → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lauðar ‘of the draw-plate’

lauð (noun f.; °-ar): [furnace]

kennings

ýtis elds lauðar
‘of the impeller of the fire of the draw-plate ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the fire of the draw-plate → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

dauðum ‘dead’

2. dauðr (adj.): dead

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vitr ‘The wise’

vitr (adj.): wise

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Vánar ‘of Ván’

Ván (noun f.): Ván

kennings

otrum Vánar
‘the otters of Ván ’
   = SHIPS

the otters of Ván → SHIPS
Close

otrum ‘the otters’

otr (noun m.; °; otrar): otter

kennings

otrum Vánar
‘the otters of Ván ’
   = SHIPS

the otters of Ván → SHIPS
Close

k*af ‘the deep’

kaf (noun n.; °; *-): deep sea

[8] k*af: ‘kviaf’ or ‘kriaf’ Bb

notes

[8] k*af ‘the deep’: In the ms. a superscript abbreviation for <vi> or <ri> follows <k>, but ‘kviaf/kriaf’ is meaningless and unmetrical, and the emendation to kaf n. obvious and traditional.

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