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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 13I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 13’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1045.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
121314

Vítt ‘far and wide’

víðr (adj.): far

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stóð ‘emanated’

standa (verb): stand

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ýti ‘the impeller’

ýtir (noun m.): giver

kennings

ýti vallar orms;
‘the impeller of the plain of the serpent; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the plain of the serpent; → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
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íslenzkum ‘the Icelandic’

íslenzkr (adj.): [Icelandic]

notes

[2] íslenzkum her ‘the Icelandic people’: Herr m. is normally used of a military force but occasionally occurs in phrases denoting the population of a region, adherents of a particular religion, etc., as here (see LP: herr 2; Fritzner: herr 1). This is the first instance in the skaldic corpus of the use of the adj. íslenzkr to denote the population of Iceland collectively; the next occur in the C14th (see LP: íslenzkr).

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her ‘people’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

notes

[2] íslenzkum her ‘the Icelandic people’: Herr m. is normally used of a military force but occasionally occurs in phrases denoting the population of a region, adherents of a particular religion, etc., as here (see LP: herr 2; Fritzner: herr 1). This is the first instance in the skaldic corpus of the use of the adj. íslenzkr to denote the population of Iceland collectively; the next occur in the C14th (see LP: íslenzkr).

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orms ‘of the serpent’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

ýti vallar orms;
‘the impeller of the plain of the serpent; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the plain of the serpent; → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

orms ‘of the serpent’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

kennings

ýti vallar orms;
‘the impeller of the plain of the serpent; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the plain of the serpent; → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vallar ‘of the plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

ýti vallar orms;
‘the impeller of the plain of the serpent; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the plain of the serpent; → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vallar ‘of the plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

ýti vallar orms;
‘the impeller of the plain of the serpent; ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the plain of the serpent; → GOLD
the impeller of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bauð ‘ordered’

bjóða (verb; °býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)): offer, order, invite

notes

[3] bauð ‘ordered’: On the placing of the verb, see Introduction.

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allan ‘for all’

allr (adj.): all

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rœtr ‘roots’

1. rót (noun f.; °-ar; rǿtr): root

[5] rœtr: ‘rettr’ Bb

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rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

rjóðendr reyrs rítar,
‘reddeners of the reed of the shield, ’
   = WARRIORS

the reed of the shield, → SWORD
reddeners of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

rjóðendr reyrs rítar,
‘reddeners of the reed of the shield, ’
   = WARRIORS

the reed of the shield, → SWORD
reddeners of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

rjóðendr ‘reddeners’

rjóðandi (noun m.): reddener

kennings

rjóðendr reyrs rítar,
‘reddeners of the reed of the shield, ’
   = WARRIORS

the reed of the shield, → SWORD
reddeners of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

góðar ‘good’

góðr (adj.): good

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reyrs ‘of the reed’

2. reyr (noun n.): reed

kennings

rjóðendr reyrs rítar,
‘reddeners of the reed of the shield, ’
   = WARRIORS

the reed of the shield, → SWORD
reddeners of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

reyrs ‘of the reed’

2. reyr (noun n.): reed

kennings

rjóðendr reyrs rítar,
‘reddeners of the reed of the shield, ’
   = WARRIORS

the reed of the shield, → SWORD
reddeners of the SWORD → WARRIORS
Close

und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[7] und: ‘vard’ Bb

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rétt ‘the righteous’

3. réttr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): right, straight, direct < réttdœmr (adj.)

notes

[8] réttdœmr ‘righteous’: The minor emendation of ms. ‑dómr to ‑dœmr supplies an adj. réttdœmr qualifying konungr ‘king’; so also Skj B and Skald.

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dœmr ‘’

-dœmr (adj.): [in judgement] < réttdœmr (adj.)

[8] ‑dœmr: dómr Bb

notes

[8] réttdœmr ‘righteous’: The minor emendation of ms. ‑dómr to ‑dœmr supplies an adj. réttdœmr qualifying konungr ‘king’; so also Skj B and Skald.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: The f. pl. nom./acc. adjectives góðar ‘good’ and settar ‘set’ (p. p. of setja) lack a corresponding noun. (a) The text above follows Kock’s suggestion (NN §1938C) of lét rœtr settar und ‘let roots be set under’, which has a good skaldic parallel (góð es rót und rôðum slíkum ‘the root under such actions is good’, RKet Lv 1/3, 4IV); the verb rótsetja is also common in prose, especially in Christian contexts (Fritzner: rótsetja). This solution assumes a slightly inexact aðalhending of rétt: settar in l. 8. (b) Skj B emends to konungr lét reist góðar stéttar við ráði óru ‘the king let good foundations be built for our condition’, which is less attractive, though it does provide a correct aðalhending of rétt: stéttar. (c) NN §1220 emends more lightly to réttr konungr lét settan góðan vǫrð ráði óru ‘the just king let a good watch be set over our condition’.

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