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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 12I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1044.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
111213

Hraustr ‘The bold’

hraustr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): strong, valiant

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hlífar ‘of the shield’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hlífar ‘of the shield’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hlífar ‘of the shield’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

hlífar ‘of the shield’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

þeys ‘of the breeze’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

þeys ‘of the breeze’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

þeys ‘of the breeze’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

þeys ‘of the breeze’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

stýrir ‘controller’

stýrir (noun m.): ruler, controller

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

støkkvifúra ‘of scattering flames’

støkkvifúrr (noun m.): [scattering flames]

[3] støkkvifúra: ‘steckví fyra’ Bb

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

støkkvifúra ‘of scattering flames’

støkkvifúrr (noun m.): [scattering flames]

[3] støkkvifúra: ‘steckví fyra’ Bb

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

støkkvifúra ‘of scattering flames’

støkkvifúrr (noun m.): [scattering flames]

[3] støkkvifúra: ‘steckví fyra’ Bb

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

stalls ‘of the stand’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support

[4] stalls: ‘stvllz’ or ‘stvllr’ Bb

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[4] stalls ‘of the stand’: The ms. reading ‘stvllz’ is unmetrical and does not appear to be an ON word. It is therefore almost certainly corrupt. Emendation to stalls m. gen. sg. ‘stand, stall, crib, altar’ is suggested by the aðalhending with allan ‘all’. This is an unusual base-word to a weapon-kenning, but cf. setr m. ‘home, resting-place’ (Meissner 169).

Close

stalls ‘of the stand’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support

[4] stalls: ‘stvllz’ or ‘stvllr’ Bb

kennings

Hraustr stýrir stalls støkkvifúra þeys hlífar
‘The bold controller of the stand of scattering flames of the breeze of the shield ’
   = WARRIOR

the breeze of the shield → BATTLE
scattering flames of the BATTLE → SWORDS
the stand of SWORDS → SHIELD
The bold controller of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[4] stalls ‘of the stand’: The ms. reading ‘stvllz’ is unmetrical and does not appear to be an ON word. It is therefore almost certainly corrupt. Emendation to stalls m. gen. sg. ‘stand, stall, crib, altar’ is suggested by the aðalhending with allan ‘all’. This is an unusual base-word to a weapon-kenning, but cf. setr m. ‘home, resting-place’ (Meissner 169).

Close

sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

Close

allan ‘all of’

allr (adj.): all

Close

Grœn ‘Green’

2. grœnn (adj.; °superl. grǿnastr/grǿnstr): green < Grœnland (noun n.)

[5] Grœn‑: ‘gręn‑’ corrected from ‘gręl‑’ Bb

Close

gætir ‘guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

gunn ‘battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnblíðr (adj.): battle-joyful

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

blíðr ‘joyful’

blíðr (adj.; °n. sg. nom. & acc. blítt/blíðt; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): gentle, happy < gunnblíðr (adj.): battle-joyful

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vengis ‘of the field’

vengi (noun n.): land, field

[7] vengis: ‘vęngivm’ Bb

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vengis ‘of the field’

vengi (noun n.): land, field

[7] vengis: ‘vęngivm’ Bb

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vallar ‘of the plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vallar ‘of the plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vallar ‘of the plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hringa ‘of the rings’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hringa ‘of the rings’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hringa ‘of the rings’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vegsamr ‘The glorious’

vegsamr (adj.): [glorious]

kennings

Vegsamr, gunnblíðr gætir vengis hringa vallar
‘The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the field of the rings of the plain ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the rings of the plain → SERPENTS
the field of SERPENTS → GOLD
The glorious, battle-joyful guardian of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

trúu ‘faith’

1. trúa (noun f.; °trú): faith, belief

notes

[7] vengis ‘of the field’: Finnur Jónsson in Skj B made the emendation to vengis, gen. sg. of vengi n.; the ms. appears to have the dat. pl. of the same word. There are three possible interpretations of vengi n.: (a) ‘land, plain, field’ (LP: 2. vengi; AEW: vengi 2), only otherwise attested in kennings; (b) ‘pillow’, in Guðr I 13/3 and in a Lat. gloss (Fritzner IV: vengi; LP: 1. vengi; AEW: vengi 1; all but one of the citations of vengi ‘field’ in LP could equally well be examples of this sense); and (c) ‘poop-deck, cabin(-roof)’ (LP: 3. vengi). This occurs as determinant of a ship-kenning in Hharð Gamv 2/4II (see Note there for further discussion of this sense). The present helmingr could conceivably be construed without emendation by taking vengi/vængi in sense (c) as a curious pars pro toto for ‘ship’: [Óláfr] lét síðan komit vengjum ramri trúu á Grœnland ‘[Óláfr] then had the powerful faith brought to Greenland on ships’; see Note above on the Christianization of Greenland. — [8] trúu ‘faith’: See Note to st. 9/8.

Close

trúu ‘faith’

1. trúa (noun f.; °trú): faith, belief

notes

[7] vengis ‘of the field’: Finnur Jónsson in Skj B made the emendation to vengis, gen. sg. of vengi n.; the ms. appears to have the dat. pl. of the same word. There are three possible interpretations of vengi n.: (a) ‘land, plain, field’ (LP: 2. vengi; AEW: vengi 2), only otherwise attested in kennings; (b) ‘pillow’, in Guðr I 13/3 and in a Lat. gloss (Fritzner IV: vengi; LP: 1. vengi; AEW: vengi 1; all but one of the citations of vengi ‘field’ in LP could equally well be examples of this sense); and (c) ‘poop-deck, cabin(-roof)’ (LP: 3. vengi). This occurs as determinant of a ship-kenning in Hharð Gamv 2/4II (see Note there for further discussion of this sense). The present helmingr could conceivably be construed without emendation by taking vengi/vængi in sense (c) as a curious pars pro toto for ‘ship’: [Óláfr] lét síðan komit vengjum ramri trúu á Grœnland ‘[Óláfr] then had the powerful faith brought to Greenland on ships’; see Note above on the Christianization of Greenland. — [8] trúu ‘faith’: See Note to st. 9/8.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In HN (MHN 115-16) and Ágr (ÍF 29, 22) King Óláfr is said to have Christianized five countries: Norway, Iceland, Shetland, Orkney and the Faroes. HSt Rst and Anon Óldr also list five lands, but replace the Faroes with Greenland, and ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 271) increases the tally to six by including both these countries. The basis for including Greenland is probably the tradition that Óláfr sent Leifr Eiríksson there on a missionary voyage (Hkr, ÍF 26, 347; see also ÓT 1958-2000, II, 200). But this is almost certainly a fiction, perhaps stemming from Gunnlaugr Leifsson’s lost biography of Óláfr (Jón Jóhannesson 1962-5; Ólafur Halldórsson 1978, 379-89). — [2]: The same rhyming words appear in HSt Rst 11/4.

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