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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Óldr 11I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1043.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
101112

fimm ‘five’

fimm (num. cardinal): five

notes

[1, 2, 4] vann kristin fimm lǫnd ‘made five lands Christian’: That is, Norway, Shetland, Orkney, Iceland and Greenland, listed in sts 12 and 13; see Note to st. 12 [All]. The Christianizing of five lands is also the subject of HSt Rst 10-11.

Close

gló ‘the gleaming’

glóa (verb): glow < Glólisti (noun m.)

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

Lista ‘Lista’

Listi (noun m.): [Lista] < Glólisti (noun m.)

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

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vann ‘made’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

notes

[1, 2, 4] vann kristin fimm lǫnd ‘made five lands Christian’: That is, Norway, Shetland, Orkney, Iceland and Greenland, listed in sts 12 and 13; see Note to st. 12 [All]. The Christianizing of five lands is also the subject of HSt Rst 10-11.

Close

kristin ‘Christian’

kristinn (adj.; °superl. kristnastr): Christian

notes

[1, 2, 4] vann kristin fimm lǫnd ‘made five lands Christian’: That is, Norway, Shetland, Orkney, Iceland and Greenland, listed in sts 12 and 13; see Note to st. 12 [All]. The Christianizing of five lands is also the subject of HSt Rst 10-11.

Close

ljót ‘of the ugly’

ljótr (adj.): ugly < ljótbrýnandi (noun m.)

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

ljót ‘of the ugly’

ljótr (adj.): ugly < ljótbrýnandi (noun m.)

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

bnanda ‘edging’

brýna (verb; °-nd-): sharpen, whet < ljótbrýnandi (noun m.)

[3] ‑bnanda: ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ Bb

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

bnanda ‘edging’

brýna (verb; °-nd-): sharpen, whet < ljótbrýnandi (noun m.)

[3] ‑bnanda: ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ Bb

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

lautar ‘of the dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow

[3] lautar: ‘lꜹtan’ Bb

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

lautar ‘of the dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow

[3] lautar: ‘lꜹtan’ Bb

kennings

gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar,
‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale, ’
   = GOLD

the ugly edging of the dale, → Miðgarðsormr
the gleaming Lista of MIÐGARÐSORMR → GOLD

notes

[2, 3] gló-Lista ljótbnanda lautar ‘the gleaming Lista of the ugly edging of the dale [= Miðgarðsormr > GOLD]’: It is clear from the context that this is a gold-kenning, and equally that the meaningless ‘birnandir’ or ‘birnandiz’ must be emended. Three different gold-kennings have been proposed: two on the pattern ‘land of the serpent’, and one on the pattern ‘fire of the sea’. (a) The solution adopted above follows Kock (NN §2116), who proposes emending to brýnanda ‘of the edging’, gen. of an otherwise unattested participial noun brýnandi m., from brýna ‘to edge’, itself derived from brún f. ‘brow, edge, sea-shore’. The ‘ugly edging’ of the land (laut f. ‘dale’, a common land-heiti) is the Miðgarðsormr (or Jǫrmungandr), the encircling World Serpent (see SnE 2005, 27, 50), here standing for a generic ‘serpent’, and Lista stands for ‘land’ in general. The traditional land or lair of a serpent is gold (cf. other gold-kennings alluding to the Miðgarðsormr: Hallv Knútdr 5/2III leið holmfjǫturs ‘path of the islet-fetter’ and Anon Pl 50/5, 6, 7VII látr undins fránbaugs jarðar ‘ground of the twisted, shining ring of the earth’). The verbal element gló-, typically applied to gold (LP), gives an extra hint as to the meaning of this complex kenning. (b) Skj B emends ‘birnandiz’ to girðanda ‘girdling’; the ‘ugly girdling of the dale’ is again the Miðgarðsormr. While not implausible, this is a more radical emendation and yields a lectio facilior, so is not adopted here. (c) Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1832, 11) and Gullberg (1875) emend to brennandi m. or f. ‘burning one’, and take glólista as ‘gleaming edge’ (from listi m. ‘selvage, edge’); the ‘dale’s gleaming edge’ is the sea, and the ‘burning one of the sea’, gold. But listi m. is late and rare, while the earlier form is lista f. (CVC: lista), and brennandi meaning ‘fire’ lacks parallels (cf. ONP: brennandi m.).

Close

lǫnd ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

notes

[1, 2, 4] vann kristin fimm lǫnd ‘made five lands Christian’: That is, Norway, Shetland, Orkney, Iceland and Greenland, listed in sts 12 and 13; see Note to st. 12 [All]. The Christianizing of five lands is also the subject of HSt Rst 10-11.

Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élboði (noun m.)

kennings

Gǫndlar élboði,
‘storm-offerer of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the offerer of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élboði (noun m.)

kennings

Gǫndlar élboði,
‘storm-offerer of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the offerer of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

boði ‘the offerer’

boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker < élboði (noun m.)

kennings

Gǫndlar élboði,
‘storm-offerer of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the offerer of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[4] Gǫndlar: ‘gvndlar’ Bb

kennings

Gǫndlar élboði,
‘storm-offerer of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the offerer of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul <valkyrie>’: A minor emendation restores aðalhending (lǫnd : Gǫnd-) and the usual form of the valkyrie-name.

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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[4] Gǫndlar: ‘gvndlar’ Bb

kennings

Gǫndlar élboði,
‘storm-offerer of Gǫndul’
   = WARRIOR

the storm of Gǫndul, → BATTLE
the offerer of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul <valkyrie>’: A minor emendation restores aðalhending (lǫnd : Gǫnd-) and the usual form of the valkyrie-name.

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Hvern ‘What’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

kennings

Hvern runn elda
‘What bush of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

What bush of swords → WARRIOR
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viti ‘know to’

1. vita (verb): know

Close

hjalma ‘of helmets’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

kennings

þornar hjalma
‘thorn-trees of helmets ’
   = WARRIORS

thorn-trees of helmets → WARRIORS
Close

þornar ‘thorn-trees’

1. þorn (noun m.; °; -ar): thorn

kennings

þornar hjalma
‘thorn-trees of helmets ’
   = WARRIORS

thorn-trees of helmets → WARRIORS
Close

elda ‘of swords’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

Hvern runn elda
‘What bush of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

What bush of swords → WARRIOR

notes

[7] runn elda ‘bush of swords [WARRIOR]’: Elda is gen. pl. of eldr m. ‘fire’, but here a weapon-heiti, as in Hfr ErfÓl 6/4 (see Note). Skj B emends to odda ‘of points’ to yield a conventional warrior-kenning here, and similarly in Arn Þorfdr 20/6II (see Note), but neither emendation is necessary.

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runn ‘bush’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

kennings

Hvern runn elda
‘What bush of swords ’
   = WARRIOR

What bush of swords → WARRIOR

notes

[7] runn elda ‘bush of swords [WARRIOR]’: Elda is gen. pl. of eldr m. ‘fire’, but here a weapon-heiti, as in Hfr ErfÓl 6/4 (see Note). Skj B emends to odda ‘of points’ to yield a conventional warrior-kenning here, and similarly in Arn Þorfdr 20/6II (see Note), but neither emendation is necessary.

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unni ‘loved’

1. unna (verb): love

notes

[7] unni ‘loved’: The presence of aðalhending (runn : unni) in an odd line leads some previous eds (Skj; Skald) to emend unni ‘loved’ to ynni ‘might achieve’ (3rd pers. sg. pret. subj. of vinna), but this minor metrical licence is frequent in Óldr (see Introduction).

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eljun ‘enterprise’

eljun (noun f.; °eljunar): energy

notes

[8] eljun slíkt ‘enterprise in such a way’: Slíkt (n. nom./acc. sg.) ‘such’ is taken here as an adv., ‘in such a way’. Slík (f. nom. sg.) might have been expected, qualifying eljun ‘enterprise’, which is normally f. (LP: eljun), and it is possible that slíkt arose in error through the word being taken as object of telja (slíkt at telja ‘to mention such a thing’). Kock (NN §196) instead takes the noun as eljan n., arguing that the Gmc cognates are n. Skj B takes eljun-ríkstr ‘most dynamic’ as a cpd with tmesis.

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slíkt ‘in such a way’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

notes

[8] eljun slíkt ‘enterprise in such a way’: Slíkt (n. nom./acc. sg.) ‘such’ is taken here as an adv., ‘in such a way’. Slík (f. nom. sg.) might have been expected, qualifying eljun ‘enterprise’, which is normally f. (LP: eljun), and it is possible that slíkt arose in error through the word being taken as object of telja (slíkt at telja ‘to mention such a thing’). Kock (NN §196) instead takes the noun as eljan n., arguing that the Gmc cognates are n. Skj B takes eljun-ríkstr ‘most dynamic’ as a cpd with tmesis.

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[2] Lista ‘Lista’: Listi (ModNorw Lista), a district in southern Norway; the name is quite frequent in kennings. — [5-8]: Comparable rhetorical questions (‘who knows of such a king?’) occur in HSt Rst 32 and ESk Geisl 64VII; the diction of Rst 32 is also similar. The structure of the helmingr is also reminiscent of SnSt Ht 55/1-4III; see also Note to l. 6. — [6]: This line occurs in the stef of HSt Rst (see Rst 9/8 etc.). Cf. also ESk Geisl 18/2VII vas hann mestr konungr ‘he was the greatest king’, and Steinn Óldr 16/6II hanns fremstr konungmanna ‘he is the foremost of kings’ .

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