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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Gyð 8VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Gyðingsvísur 8’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 524-5.

Anonymous PoemsGyðingsvísur
789

Fljótr ‘quick’

2. fljótr (adj.): quick

[1] Fljótr: so 399a‑bˣ, Fliót B, BFJ, ‘Fliot(s)’(?) BRydberg

Close

flagðs ‘of the trollwoman’

flagð (noun n.): troll-woman

[1] flagðs: ‘fl[...]gs’ B, ‘fl[...]s’ 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘fl(eyg)s’(?) BRydberg

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

flagðs ‘of the trollwoman’

flagð (noun n.): troll-woman

[1] flagðs: ‘fl[...]gs’ B, ‘fl[...]s’ 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘fl(eyg)s’(?) BRydberg

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

veita ‘grant’

2. veita (verb): grant, give

[1] veita: ‘vei[...]’ B, ‘ve[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘v[...]’ BRydberg, BFJ

Close

fák ‘of the horse’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse < fáknistandi (noun m.)

[2] fáknistanda: ‘f[...]k[...]stand([...])’(?) B, ‘f(ri)kn(i)standa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]uid[...]istandi’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

fák ‘of the horse’

fákr (noun m.; °; -ar): horse < fáknistandi (noun m.)

[2] fáknistanda: ‘f[...]k[...]stand([...])’(?) B, ‘f(ri)kn(i)standa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]uid[...]istandi’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

nistanda ‘feeder’

nistandi (noun m.): feeder < fáknistandi (noun m.)

[2] fáknistanda: ‘f[...]k[...]stand([...])’(?) B, ‘f(ri)kn(i)standa’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]uid[...]istandi’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

kristnum ‘to the Christian’

kristinn (adj.; °superl. kristnastr): Christian

kennings

kristnum flagðs fáknistanda
‘horse-feeder of the trollwoman’
   = WARRIOR

the horse of the trollwoman → WOLF
to the Christian feeder of the WOLF → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] kristnum fáknistanda flagðs ‘to the Christian feeder of the horse of the trollwoman [WOLF > WARRIOR]’: The horse of the trollwoman is a kenning for a wolf, probably a mythic reference to the giantess Hyrrokkin, who attended Baldr’s funeral riding a wolf, with snakes for reins (SnE 1982, 46; cf. DRI, no. 284). This kenning may be a specific reference to the Hyrrokkin example or a more general association between giantesses and wolves; cf. Meissner, 124-5.

Close

þóað ‘though’

þó (adv.): though

Close

bæði ‘had asked’

biðja (verb; °biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)): ask for, order, pray

[3] bæði: ‘[...]ed[...]’ B, ‘[...]e᷎di[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, (be)ði(?) BRydberg, ‘[...]’ BFJ

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ættingi ‘The kinsman’

ættingi (noun m.; °; -jar): [kinsman]

kennings

Ættingi gyðinga
‘The kinsman of the Jews ’
   = JEW

The kinsman of the Jews → JEW
Close

gyðinga ‘of the Jews’

gyðingr (noun m.): Jew

kennings

Ættingi gyðinga
‘The kinsman of the Jews ’
   = JEW

The kinsman of the Jews → JEW
Close

Svör ‘answers’

svar (noun n.; °; -*): answer

[5] Svör veitti: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘suo᷎[...]eiti’ B

notes

[5] þau svör ‘those answers’: These are not attempts to stall the Jew’s deal with the Christian, but a proper statement of his terms. The first condition – that the Christian lay down a pledge – is explained in 9/1-4.

Close

veitti ‘gave’

2. veita (verb): grant, give

[5] Svör veitti: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘suo᷎[...]eiti’ B

Close

þau ‘those’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[5] þau svör ‘those answers’: These are not attempts to stall the Jew’s deal with the Christian, but a proper statement of his terms. The first condition – that the Christian lay down a pledge – is explained in 9/1-4.

Close

sliettrar ‘of the smooth’

sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

[5] sliettrar: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘sle[...]’ B

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

sliettrar ‘of the smooth’

sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

[5] sliettrar: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘sle[...]’ B

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

sliettrar ‘of the smooth’

sléttr (adj.): level, smooth

[5] sliettrar: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘sle[...]’ B

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

sól ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < sólmeiðr (noun m.)

[6] sólmeiðr: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘sol m[...]dr’ B, ‘solm(eidr)’(?) BRydberg, ‘solme[...]dr’ BFJ

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

sól ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < sólmeiðr (noun m.)

[6] sólmeiðr: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘sol m[...]dr’ B, ‘solm(eidr)’(?) BRydberg, ‘solme[...]dr’ BFJ

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

meiðr ‘The tree’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < sólmeiðr (noun m.)

[6] sólmeiðr: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘sol m[...]dr’ B, ‘solm(eidr)’(?) BRydberg, ‘solme[...]dr’ BFJ

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

skipa ‘of ships’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

skipa ‘of ships’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

skipa ‘of ships’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

leiðar ‘path’

leið (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar): path, way

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

leiðar ‘path’

leið (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar): path, way

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

leiðar ‘path’

leið (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar): path, way

kennings

Sliettrar leiðar skipa sólmeiðr
‘sun-tree of the smooth path of ships’
   = MAN

the smooth path of ships → SEA
the sun of the SEA → GOLD
The tree of the GOLD → MAN
Close

órlausn ‘solution’

órlausn (noun f.): solution, answer

[7] órlausn ára: ‘ór(laus)[...]a[...]ara’(?) B, ‘órlausn [...](sv)anna’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎r (l)aus(n v)ar s(u) ara’(?) BRydberg, ‘or lausn var [...] ora’ BFJ

notes

[7] órlausn ‘solution [to a problem], reply, help, way out’: In tales that turn on money-lending contracts between Jews and Christians, a common motif is that a loophole allows the Christian to renege on the deal (cf. the Shylock narrative in Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice), and it is possible that there was a hint of this here.

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‘’

(non-lexical)

[7] órlausn ára: ‘ór(laus)[...]a[...]ara’(?) B, ‘órlausn [...](sv)anna’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎r (l)aus(n v)ar s(u) ara’(?) BRydberg, ‘or lausn var [...] ora’ BFJ

Close

ára ‘of oars’

1. ár (noun f.; °-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)): oar

[7] órlausn ára: ‘ór(laus)[...]a[...]ara’(?) B, ‘órlausn [...](sv)anna’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎r (l)aus(n v)ar s(u) ara’(?) BRydberg, ‘or lausn var [...] ora’ BFJ

kennings

ára jóríðanda.
‘horse-rider of oars’
   = SEAFARER

the horse of oars. → SHIP
for the rider of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

ára ‘of oars’

1. ár (noun f.; °-ar, dat. u/-; -ar/-ir(LandslBorg 151b²¹)): oar

[7] órlausn ára: ‘ór(laus)[...]a[...]ara’(?) B, ‘órlausn [...](sv)anna’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘o᷎r (l)aus(n v)ar s(u) ara’(?) BRydberg, ‘or lausn var [...] ora’ BFJ

kennings

ára jóríðanda.
‘horse-rider of oars’
   = SEAFARER

the horse of oars. → SHIP
for the rider of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

‘of the horse’

jór (noun m.): stallion, steed < jóríðandi (noun m.)

[8] ríðanda of …: ‘íor[...]da of[...]’ B, ‘iomridanda of s[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘io rid(an)da ofsi[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘iǫ[...]da of [...]’ BFJ

kennings

ára jóríðanda.
‘horse-rider of oars’
   = SEAFARER

the horse of oars. → SHIP
for the rider of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

‘of the horse’

jór (noun m.): stallion, steed < jóríðandi (noun m.)

[8] ríðanda of …: ‘íor[...]da of[...]’ B, ‘iomridanda of s[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘io rid(an)da ofsi[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘iǫ[...]da of [...]’ BFJ

kennings

ára jóríðanda.
‘horse-rider of oars’
   = SEAFARER

the horse of oars. → SHIP
for the rider of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

ríðanda ‘for the rider’

ríðandi (noun m.; °; ríðendr): rider < jóríðandi (noun m.)

[8] ríðanda of …: ‘íor[...]da of[...]’ B, ‘iomridanda of s[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘io rid(an)da ofsi[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘iǫ[...]da of [...]’ BFJ

kennings

ára jóríðanda.
‘horse-rider of oars’
   = SEAFARER

the horse of oars. → SHIP
for the rider of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

of ‘’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[8] ríðanda of …: ‘íor[...]da of[...]’ B, ‘iomridanda of s[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘io rid(an)da ofsi[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘iǫ[...]da of [...]’ BFJ

Close

‘…’

(non-lexical)

[8] ríðanda of …: ‘íor[...]da of[...]’ B, ‘iomridanda of s[...]’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘io rid(an)da ofsi[...]’(?) BRydberg, ‘iǫ[...]da of [...]’ BFJ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

B is very badly damaged. In general, the readings of the 399a-bˣ transcript have been adopted, where it is indicated that these are reasonably certain, and Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s reconstructions (made in marginal notes to the copy of the 399a-bˣ transcript in 444ˣ) have also been adopted where these amount to occasional letters. However, this edn has not followed Rydberg in adopting Sveinbjörn’s reconstructions to ítrum sǫrla in l. 7 or síðir in l. 8, since these cannot be substantiated from the remaining text indicated in the 399a-bˣ transcript. — [7-8]: Finnur Jónsson does not translate ll. 7 and 8, paraphrasing the second helmingr sådant svar gav manden … men lån gav han manden tilsidst ‘the man gave such an answer … but in the end he granted the man a loan’ (Skj B).

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