skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Anon Gyð 7VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Gyðingsvísur 7’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 523-4.

Anonymous PoemsGyðingsvísur
678

Vell ‘rich in’

vell (noun n.): gold < vellauðigr (adj.)

[1] Vellauðgan: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘Vell[...]d[...]’ B, ‘Vellaud(gan)’(?) BRydberg, ‘Vellbiodr’ BFJ

notes

[1] vellauðgan fór: The ms. is badly damaged, and only ‘Vell…d…r’ can be read with any degree of certainty. The 399a-bˣ copyist was sure of Vellauðgan fór, and this reading has been taken as the basis of the reconstruction here. Vellauðgan is taken as m. acc. sg. of vellauðigr (adj.) ‘well-stocked in gold, rich’, which is construed with m. acc. sg. gyðing ‘Jew’ (l. 4). The same adj. occurs in KormǪ Lv 35/4V. Finnur Jónsson reads ‘Vellbiodr’ in Skj A, but in Skj B reconstructs the first word as m. sg. nom. adj. vellsnauður ‘poorly off for gold’, which he construes with the man-kenning viggbeitir Meita vallar ‘steerer of the horse of Meiti’s plain’ (ll. 1, 2). Kock (NN §2981) again objects to Finnur’s use of the desyllabified -ur in his reconstruction (see Note to 5/5), and emends to the synonymous vella snauðr ‘needy in respect of gold’, in an attempt to regularise the metre. Both emendations are unnecessary, however, since the 399a-bˣ reading makes both semantic and metrical sense.

Close

auðgan ‘gold’

auðigr (adj.; °auðgan/auðigan; compar. auðgari/auðigri, superl. auðgastr/auðigastr): wealthy < vellauðigr (adj.)

[1] Vellauðgan: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘Vell[...]d[...]’ B, ‘Vellaud(gan)’(?) BRydberg, ‘Vellbiodr’ BFJ

notes

[1] vellauðgan fór: The ms. is badly damaged, and only ‘Vell…d…r’ can be read with any degree of certainty. The 399a-bˣ copyist was sure of Vellauðgan fór, and this reading has been taken as the basis of the reconstruction here. Vellauðgan is taken as m. acc. sg. of vellauðigr (adj.) ‘well-stocked in gold, rich’, which is construed with m. acc. sg. gyðing ‘Jew’ (l. 4). The same adj. occurs in KormǪ Lv 35/4V. Finnur Jónsson reads ‘Vellbiodr’ in Skj A, but in Skj B reconstructs the first word as m. sg. nom. adj. vellsnauður ‘poorly off for gold’, which he construes with the man-kenning viggbeitir Meita vallar ‘steerer of the horse of Meiti’s plain’ (ll. 1, 2). Kock (NN §2981) again objects to Finnur’s use of the desyllabified -ur in his reconstruction (see Note to 5/5), and emends to the synonymous vella snauðr ‘needy in respect of gold’, in an attempt to regularise the metre. Both emendations are unnecessary, however, since the 399a-bˣ reading makes both semantic and metrical sense.

Close

fór ‘went’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[1] fór: so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]r’ B, ‘(gǫ)r’(?) BRydberg

notes

[1] vellauðgan fór: The ms. is badly damaged, and only ‘Vell…d…r’ can be read with any degree of certainty. The 399a-bˣ copyist was sure of Vellauðgan fór, and this reading has been taken as the basis of the reconstruction here. Vellauðgan is taken as m. acc. sg. of vellauðigr (adj.) ‘well-stocked in gold, rich’, which is construed with m. acc. sg. gyðing ‘Jew’ (l. 4). The same adj. occurs in KormǪ Lv 35/4V. Finnur Jónsson reads ‘Vellbiodr’ in Skj A, but in Skj B reconstructs the first word as m. sg. nom. adj. vellsnauður ‘poorly off for gold’, which he construes with the man-kenning viggbeitir Meita vallar ‘steerer of the horse of Meiti’s plain’ (ll. 1, 2). Kock (NN §2981) again objects to Finnur’s use of the desyllabified -ur in his reconstruction (see Note to 5/5), and emends to the synonymous vella snauðr ‘needy in respect of gold’, in an attempt to regularise the metre. Both emendations are unnecessary, however, since the 399a-bˣ reading makes both semantic and metrical sense.

Close

vallar ‘plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

vallar ‘plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

vallar ‘plain’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

vigg ‘of the horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < viggbeitir (noun m.)

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

vigg ‘of the horse’

viggr (noun m.): horse < viggbeitir (noun m.)

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

beitir ‘The steerer’

beitir (noun m.): steerer < viggbeitir (noun m.)

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

Meita ‘of Meiti’s’

Meiti (noun m.): Meiti

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] Meita (gen. sg.): Meiti is listed among the heiti for sea-kings in Þul Sea-kings 1/3III and Þul Sækonunga 2/8III.

Close

Meita ‘of Meiti’s’

Meiti (noun m.): Meiti

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] Meita (gen. sg.): Meiti is listed among the heiti for sea-kings in Þul Sea-kings 1/3III and Þul Sækonunga 2/8III.

Close

Meita ‘of Meiti’s’

Meiti (noun m.): Meiti

kennings

Meita vallar viggbeitir
‘horse-steerer of Meiti’s plain’
   = SEAFARER

Meiti’s plain → SEA
the horse of the SEA → SHIP
The steerer of the SHIP → SEAFARER

notes

[2] Meita (gen. sg.): Meiti is listed among the heiti for sea-kings in Þul Sea-kings 1/3III and Þul Sækonunga 2/8III.

Close

ein ‘’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone < einráð (noun n.): °own decision

[3] einráð: ‘[...]rad’ all

notes

[3] einráð ‘resolution’: The beginning of the word is lost in a hole in the ms., and only ‘rad’ can be read with any certainty. In this edn Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s reconstruction (made in a note to the 444ˣ transcript) to einráð m. sg. nom. is adopted. Finnur Jónsson suggests the rather more pejorative óráð, and translates det var en dårlig beslutning af manden ‘that was a poor decision by the man’ (Skj B). Such anti-Semitism may have been a feature of the original poem (see Introduction), but it is worth noting that there is no suggestion in what remains of it that the Jew’s wealth and function as a moneylender are treated in anything but an objective manner. Kock (NN §3393) is led astray by Skj A’s incorrect reading varat ‘was not’ (l. 3), and emends to n. nom. sing. ofráð ‘too great a task’ translating det var inte någon överlägsen utväg ‘there was no better expedient’.

Close

ráð ‘the resolution’

ráð (noun n.; °-s; -): advice, plan, control, power < einráð (noun n.): °own decision

[3] einráð: ‘[...]rad’ all

notes

[3] einráð ‘resolution’: The beginning of the word is lost in a hole in the ms., and only ‘rad’ can be read with any certainty. In this edn Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s reconstruction (made in a note to the 444ˣ transcript) to einráð m. sg. nom. is adopted. Finnur Jónsson suggests the rather more pejorative óráð, and translates det var en dårlig beslutning af manden ‘that was a poor decision by the man’ (Skj B). Such anti-Semitism may have been a feature of the original poem (see Introduction), but it is worth noting that there is no suggestion in what remains of it that the Jew’s wealth and function as a moneylender are treated in anything but an objective manner. Kock (NN §3393) is led astray by Skj A’s incorrect reading varat ‘was not’ (l. 3), and emends to n. nom. sing. ofráð ‘too great a task’ translating det var inte någon överlägsen utväg ‘there was no better expedient’.

Close

eyðis ‘of the destroyer’

eyðir (noun m.): destroyer

kennings

eyðis armlinns.
‘of the destroyer of the arm-serpent. ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the arm-serpent. → RING
the destroyer of the RING → GENEROUS MAN
Close

arm ‘of the arm’

1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm < armlinnr (noun m.): arm-snake

kennings

eyðis armlinns.
‘of the destroyer of the arm-serpent. ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the arm-serpent. → RING
the destroyer of the RING → GENEROUS MAN
Close

arm ‘of the arm’

1. armr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): arm < armlinnr (noun m.): arm-snake

kennings

eyðis armlinns.
‘of the destroyer of the arm-serpent. ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the arm-serpent. → RING
the destroyer of the RING → GENEROUS MAN
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < armlinnr (noun m.): arm-snake

kennings

eyðis armlinns.
‘of the destroyer of the arm-serpent. ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the arm-serpent. → RING
the destroyer of the RING → GENEROUS MAN
Close

linns ‘serpent’

linnr (noun m.): snake < armlinnr (noun m.): arm-snake

kennings

eyðis armlinns.
‘of the destroyer of the arm-serpent. ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the arm-serpent. → RING
the destroyer of the RING → GENEROUS MAN
Close

gyðing ‘a Jew’

gyðingr (noun m.): Jew

Close

finna ‘to find’

2. finna (verb): find, meet

[4, 5] finna Beiddi: ‘fi[...]ide’ B, ‘finn(a bei)ddi’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fi(nn)[...](æ)ide’(?) BRydberg, ‘fi[...]e’ BFJ

Close

Beiddi ‘asked’

biðja (verb; °biðr; bað, báðu; beðinn (beiþ- Martin¹ 573‡, bỏþ- HákEirsp 661‰, cf. ed. intr. xl)): ask for, order, pray

[4, 5] finna Beiddi: ‘fi[...]ide’ B, ‘finn(a bei)ddi’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘fi(nn)[...](æ)ide’(?) BRydberg, ‘fi[...]e’ BFJ

Close

blára ‘of dark’

blár (adj.): black

[5] blára: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘bla[...]’ B, BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

blára ‘of dark’

blár (adj.): black

[5] blára: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘bla[...]’ B, BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

odda ‘spear-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

odda ‘spear-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

brak ‘of the crash’

brak (noun n.): clash, noise < braknjǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

brak ‘of the crash’

brak (noun n.): clash, noise < braknjǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Njörðr ‘Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr < braknjǫrðr (noun m.)

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

‘’

(non-lexical)

notes

[6] : B is completely illegible here, and it has not been possible to reconstruct the text satisfactorily. The essential sense of the st. is clear from what remains, and the missing word is most probably an adj. or adv. qualifying the rich man’s approach to the Jew. Kock proposes that a cpd with n. megin- ‘strength’, such as adv. meginharðla ‘very powerfully’ be inserted.

Close

láns ‘for a loan’

lán (noun n.; °-s; -): loan, gift

[7] láns: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]ns’ B, ‘[...](an)s’(?) BRydberg, ‘[...]us’ BFJ

Close

hug ‘The noble’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < hugprúðr (adj.): proud

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

prúðr ‘’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < hugprúðr (adj.): proud

kennings

Hugprúðr blára odda brak-Njörðr
‘crash-Njǫrðr of dark spear-points’
   = WARRIOR

the crash of dark spear-points → BATTLE
The noble Njǫrðr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

fie ‘of money’

fé (noun n.; °fjár/féar; -): cattle, money < fésnúðr (noun m.)

[8] fiesnúðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘fe[...]dar’ B, BRydberg, ‘fesnud[...]’ BFJ

Close

snúðar ‘for the favour’

snúðr (noun m.; °-ar; -ar): fortune, favour < fésnúðr (noun m.)

[8] fiesnúðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘fe[...]dar’ B, BRydberg, ‘fesnud[...]’ BFJ

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.