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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Gyð 5VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Gyðingsvísur 5’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 521-2.

Anonymous PoemsGyðingsvísur
456

þraut ‘came to an end’

þrjóta (verb; str. 2; þrýtr, þraut, þrutu, þrotinn): end, fail

[1] þraut: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘þra[...]’ B, ‘þrau[...]’ BRydberg, BFJ

Close

errins ‘of the brave’

errinn (adj.): bold

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

iel ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élmeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

iel ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élmeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

meiðs ‘tree’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < élmeiðr (noun m.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

fetil ‘of the strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

fetil ‘of the strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

fetil ‘of the strap’

fetill (noun m.; °dat. fatli/fetli; fetlar): strap, sword-belt < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

þielar ‘file’

þél (noun f.; °; -ar): file < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

þielar ‘file’

þél (noun f.; °; -ar): file < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

þielar ‘file’

þél (noun f.; °; -ar): file < fetilþél (noun f.)

kennings

fetilþielar ielmeiðs errins
‘of the strap-file’s brave storm-tree’
   = WARRIOR

the strap-file → SWORD
the storm of the SWORD → BATTLE
the brave tree of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

óðs ‘of the furious’

2. óðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): raging, furious

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

óðs ‘of the furious’

2. óðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): raging, furious

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

gæðis ‘of the strengthener’

gœðir (noun m.): strengthener, increaser

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

odda ‘of sword-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

odda ‘of sword-points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

regns ‘rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

regns ‘rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain

kennings

gæðis óðs regns odda
‘of the strengthener of the furious rain of sword-points ’
   = WARRIOR

the furious rain of sword-points → BATTLE
the strengthener of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

þegna ‘men’

þegn (noun m.; °dat. -/-i; -ar): thane, man, franklin

[4] þegna: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]gna’ B, BRydberg, BFJ

Close

Al ‘completely’

al- ((prefix)): very < alsnauðr (adj.)

[5] Alsnauður varð: ‘alsna[...]r[...]d’ B, ‘alsnaudr vard’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[5] alsnauður ‘completely impoverished’: Without the svarabhakti vowel, l. 5 is a syllable short, so the desyllabified adj. is metrically necessary. Kock (NN §2981) objects to Skj B’s normalisation to alsnauður on the grounds that similar forms are not found elsewhere in Gyð (but see Note to 7/1). He suggests that the metre be regularized by inserting þá ‘then’ after varð. We are not, however, in any doubt as to the timescale of the rich man’s descent into penury, since the poet (whose ambitious man-kenning is straining his versification) tells us twice: á lesti ‘eventually’ (l. 6) and til lykta ‘in the end’ (l. 7). Kock’s emendation would thus introduce a semantically redundant form here.

Close

snauður ‘impoverished’

snauðr (adj.): bereft, poor < alsnauðr (adj.)

[5] Alsnauður varð: ‘alsna[...]r[...]d’ B, ‘alsnaudr vard’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

notes

[5] alsnauður ‘completely impoverished’: Without the svarabhakti vowel, l. 5 is a syllable short, so the desyllabified adj. is metrically necessary. Kock (NN §2981) objects to Skj B’s normalisation to alsnauður on the grounds that similar forms are not found elsewhere in Gyð (but see Note to 7/1). He suggests that the metre be regularized by inserting þá ‘then’ after varð. We are not, however, in any doubt as to the timescale of the rich man’s descent into penury, since the poet (whose ambitious man-kenning is straining his versification) tells us twice: á lesti ‘eventually’ (l. 6) and til lykta ‘in the end’ (l. 7). Kock’s emendation would thus introduce a semantically redundant form here.

Close

varð ‘became’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[5] Alsnauður varð: ‘alsna[...]r[...]d’ B, ‘alsnaudr vard’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ

Close

eyðir ‘The destroyer’

eyðir (noun m.): destroyer

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lesti ‘the end’

lesti (noun n.): end, the last

[6] lesti: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘les[...]i’ B

Close

lýsi ‘of the bright’

2. lýsi (noun n.; °-s): [bright, oil] < lýsiblik (noun n.)

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lýsi ‘of the bright’

2. lýsi (noun n.; °-s): [bright, oil] < lýsiblik (noun n.)

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bliks ‘flash’

blik (noun n.): gleam < lýsiblik (noun n.)

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

bliks ‘flash’

blik (noun n.): gleam < lýsiblik (noun n.)

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lands ‘of the land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lands ‘of the land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

lands ‘of the land’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

skævaðar ‘of the high-strider’

skævaðr (noun m.): high-strider

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] skævaðar ‘high-strider’: Skævaðr is listed among horse-heiti in Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III and in Þul Hesta 1/6III.

Close

skævaðar ‘of the high-strider’

skævaðr (noun m.): high-strider

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] skævaðar ‘high-strider’: Skævaðr is listed among horse-heiti in Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III and in Þul Hesta 1/6III.

Close

skævaðar ‘of the high-strider’

skævaðr (noun m.): high-strider

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] skævaðar ‘high-strider’: Skævaðr is listed among horse-heiti in Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III and in Þul Hesta 1/6III.

Close

skævaðar ‘of the high-strider’

skævaðr (noun m.): high-strider

[8] lands skævaðar: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘l[...]ndz skeu[...]d[...]’ B, ‘l[...]nndz skeuadar’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[8] skævaðar ‘high-strider’: Skævaðr is listed among horse-heiti in Anon Þorgþ I 2/2III and in Þul Hesta 1/6III.

Close

branda ‘of planks’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

branda ‘of planks’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

branda ‘of planks’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

branda ‘of planks’

brandr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): sword, prow; fire

kennings

Eyðir lýsibliks lands skævaðar branda,
‘The destroyer of the bright flash of the land of the high-strider of planks, ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the high-strider of planks, → SHIP
the land of the SHIP → SEA
the bright flash of the SEA → GOLD
The destroyer of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

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