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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 34I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 34’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 937.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
333435

hví ‘Why do’

hví (adv.): why

notes

[1] hví kveðum ‘why do we say’: A rhetorical question, rare in skaldic poetry, which made Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) emend this passage, but that is unnecessary.

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kveðum ‘we say’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

notes

[1] hví kveðum ‘why do we say’: A rhetorical question, rare in skaldic poetry, which made Konráð Gíslason (1895-7) emend this passage, but that is unnecessary.

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ortu ‘composed’

yrkja (verb): compose

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hug ‘of the mind’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < hugdyggr (adj.): steadfast

[2] hugdyggs: ‘hygdvgs’ Bb

kennings

son hugdyggs Tryggva
‘the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi ’
   = Óláfr

the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi → Óláfr
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dyggs ‘brave’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy < hugdyggr (adj.): steadfast

[2] hugdyggs: ‘hygdvgs’ Bb

kennings

son hugdyggs Tryggva
‘the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi ’
   = Óláfr

the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi → Óláfr
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son ‘the son’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

kennings

son hugdyggs Tryggva
‘the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi ’
   = Óláfr

the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi → Óláfr
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Tryggva ‘Tryggvi’

Tryggvi (noun m.): Tryggvi

kennings

son hugdyggs Tryggva
‘the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi ’
   = Óláfr

the son of the mind-brave Tryggvi → Óláfr
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hand ‘hand’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handbál (noun n.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
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hand ‘hand’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand < handbál (noun n.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
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báls ‘fire’

bál (noun n.; °-s; -): fire < handbál (noun n.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

báls ‘fire’

bál (noun n.; °-s; -): fire < handbál (noun n.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

hnykki ‘moving’

hnykkja (verb): pull violently < hnykkilundr (noun m.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

lunda ‘trees’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree < hnykkilundr (noun m.)

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

hreins ‘of the pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure

kennings

hnykkilunda hreins handbáls
‘moving trees of the pure hand-fire ’
   = MEN

the pure hand-fire → GOLD
moving trees of the GOLD → MEN
Close

Hallfreðr ‘Hallfreðr’

Hallfreðr (noun m.): Hallfreðr

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Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

kennings

stilli Hǫrða
‘for the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

for the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr
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stilli ‘for the ruler’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

stilli Hǫrða
‘for the ruler of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

for the ruler of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr
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hríðǫflgum ‘in the onslaught’

hríðǫflugr (adj.): [in onslaught]

notes

[6, 7] hríðǫflgum hjǫrgráps ‘powerful in the onslaught of the sword-hail [BATTLE]’: Lit. ‘onslaught-powerful of the sword-hail’. Hríð ‘storm, onslaught’ apparently contributes to the description of Óláfr’s fierceness in battle, yet although it is very often used in battle-kennings, it is not an element in the kenning hjǫrgráps ‘sword-hail [BATTLE]’, as gráp ‘hail, hail-shower’ is already a sufficient base-word. Since hríð can refer to a particular phase or onslaught in a battle it may have that sense here; see Note to st. 17/7 and LP: hríð 2. 

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smíðat ‘forged’

smíða (verb): craft

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hjǫr ‘of the sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrgráp (noun n.)

kennings

hjǫrgráps
‘of the sword-hail, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-hail, → BATTLE

notes

[6, 7] hríðǫflgum hjǫrgráps ‘powerful in the onslaught of the sword-hail [BATTLE]’: Lit. ‘onslaught-powerful of the sword-hail’. Hríð ‘storm, onslaught’ apparently contributes to the description of Óláfr’s fierceness in battle, yet although it is very often used in battle-kennings, it is not an element in the kenning hjǫrgráps ‘sword-hail [BATTLE]’, as gráp ‘hail, hail-shower’ is already a sufficient base-word. Since hríð can refer to a particular phase or onslaught in a battle it may have that sense here; see Note to st. 17/7 and LP: hríð 2. 

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gráps ‘hail’

gráp (noun n.): hail < hjǫrgráp (noun n.)

kennings

hjǫrgráps
‘of the sword-hail, ’
   = BATTLE

the sword-hail, → BATTLE

notes

[6, 7] hríðǫflgum hjǫrgráps ‘powerful in the onslaught of the sword-hail [BATTLE]’: Lit. ‘onslaught-powerful of the sword-hail’. Hríð ‘storm, onslaught’ apparently contributes to the description of Óláfr’s fierceness in battle, yet although it is very often used in battle-kennings, it is not an element in the kenning hjǫrgráps ‘sword-hail [BATTLE]’, as gráp ‘hail, hail-shower’ is already a sufficient base-word. Since hríð can refer to a particular phase or onslaught in a battle it may have that sense here; see Note to st. 17/7 and LP: hríð 2. 

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hugða ‘an agreeable’

hugðr (adj./verb p.p.): agreeable, courageous

notes

[7] hugða ‘agreeable’: This appears to be the adj. hugaðr ‘dear, agreeable, pleasant’ (LP: hugaðr 2). It is difficult to separate this word from hugaðr as p. p. of hyggja ‘to think’, which could give ‘(well) conceived, thoughtful’ here, but since the verb normally refers to belief and opinion rather than thinking as a creative act, the adj. seems more likely; cf. a similar context in Bjbp Jóms 1/3.

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hróðrar ‘Praise’

hróðr (noun m.): encomium, praise < hróðrargjarn (adj.)

notes

[8] hróðrargjarn ‘praise-eager’: The cpd can either mean that Hallfreðr is eager to be praised or that he is eager to praise, since hróðr can refer both to praise or renown and to praise poetry; cf. LP: hróðr. Syntactically, it may also be taken with Bjarni, and it can be construed either as a cpd or as a two-word phrase.

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gjarn ‘eager’

gjarn (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): eager < hróðrargjarn (adj.)

notes

[8] hróðrargjarn ‘praise-eager’: The cpd can either mean that Hallfreðr is eager to be praised or that he is eager to praise, since hróðr can refer both to praise or renown and to praise poetry; cf. LP: hróðr. Syntactically, it may also be taken with Bjarni, and it can be construed either as a cpd or as a two-word phrase.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: We are informed here and in st. 35/2 that Rst is the third drápa about Óláfr Tryggvason, and the skald claims his predecessors to be Hallfreðr and Bjarni. The former is Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ‘Troublesome-poet’ Óttarsson (Hfr), Óláfr’s own skald, who is believed to have produced two drápur about Óláfr (Hfr Óldr and Hfr ErfÓl; see Introductions to these). Bjarni’s identity is unknown, though a ‘Bjarni skáld’ is listed as a poet of Óláfr Tryggvason in Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261; the U text specifies ‘biarni gvllbra S’, i.e. Bjarni gullbrárskáld Hallbjarnarson (BjHall), presumably in error).

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