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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorm Lv 16I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 16’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 827.

Þormóðr KolbrúnarskáldLausavísur
151617

Sex ‘six’

sex (num. cardinal): six

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[1] sex ‘six’: Five men whom the poet has slain are named in Þorm Lv 13V (Fbr 29), on which see the Notes in SkP V. In addition, Þormóðr killed King Óláfr’s forecastle-man, according to saga tradition (see the Context to Lv 15).

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hefk ‘I have’

hafa (verb): have

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alls ‘in all’

allr (adj.): all

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síz ‘since’

síz (conj.): since

[1] síz óxu: síðan óxum 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ, er ôru DG8

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óxu ‘grew’

vaxa (verb): grow, increase

[1] síz óxu: síðan óxum 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ, er ôru DG8

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ón ‘of sword’

ónn (noun m.): sword < ónhjalt (noun n.): sword-hilt

[2] ón‑: en 142ˣ, ór 566aˣ

kennings

Tý ónhjalta;
‘against the Týr of sword-hilts; ’
   = WARRIOR = me

against the Týr of sword-hilts; → WARRIOR = me

notes

[2] Tý ónhjalta ‘the Týr <god> of sword-hilts [WARRIOR = Þormóðr]’: A hjalt is more strictly either a knob at the end of a hilt or the guard between hilt and blade (see Note to Anon Ól 1/5). The meaning of ónn has not been firmly established, though undoubtedly it refers either to a sword or to a part of a sword. It appears in Þul Sverða 11/5III, and Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 368) renders the word ‘patterning on sword-blade’. (a) The present reading, retaining ms. ón and assuming the sense ‘sword’, is that of Kock (NN §2483). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B emended to óns hjalta, taking ónn hjalta to be a kenning for ‘sword’, and in 1932-3 rejected the hypothesis of Falk (1914b, 19), that this is Ônn, comparable with Swed. dial. ån (m.) and MHG jān (m.) ‘row of mown grass or reaped grain’; Falk noted its appearance in Norwegian place names with the meaning ‘striated meadow’.

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hjalta ‘hilts’

hjalt (noun n.; °; *-): hilt < ónhjalt (noun n.): sword-hilt

kennings

Tý ónhjalta;
‘against the Týr of sword-hilts; ’
   = WARRIOR = me

against the Týr of sword-hilts; → WARRIOR = me

notes

[2] Tý ónhjalta ‘the Týr <god> of sword-hilts [WARRIOR = Þormóðr]’: A hjalt is more strictly either a knob at the end of a hilt or the guard between hilt and blade (see Note to Anon Ól 1/5). The meaning of ónn has not been firmly established, though undoubtedly it refers either to a sword or to a part of a sword. It appears in Þul Sverða 11/5III, and Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 368) renders the word ‘patterning on sword-blade’. (a) The present reading, retaining ms. ón and assuming the sense ‘sword’, is that of Kock (NN §2483). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B emended to óns hjalta, taking ónn hjalta to be a kenning for ‘sword’, and in 1932-3 rejected the hypothesis of Falk (1914b, 19), that this is Ônn, comparable with Swed. dial. ån (m.) and MHG jān (m.) ‘row of mown grass or reaped grain’; Falk noted its appearance in Norwegian place names with the meaning ‘striated meadow’.

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‘the Týr’

Týr (noun m.): Týr

[2] Tý: mér all others

kennings

Tý ónhjalta;
‘against the Týr of sword-hilts; ’
   = WARRIOR = me

against the Týr of sword-hilts; → WARRIOR = me

notes

[2] Tý ónhjalta ‘the Týr <god> of sword-hilts [WARRIOR = Þormóðr]’: A hjalt is more strictly either a knob at the end of a hilt or the guard between hilt and blade (see Note to Anon Ól 1/5). The meaning of ónn has not been firmly established, though undoubtedly it refers either to a sword or to a part of a sword. It appears in Þul Sverða 11/5III, and Faulkes (SnE 1998, II, 368) renders the word ‘patterning on sword-blade’. (a) The present reading, retaining ms. ón and assuming the sense ‘sword’, is that of Kock (NN §2483). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B emended to óns hjalta, taking ónn hjalta to be a kenning for ‘sword’, and in 1932-3 rejected the hypothesis of Falk (1914b, 19), that this is Ônn, comparable with Swed. dial. ån (m.) and MHG jān (m.) ‘row of mown grass or reaped grain’; Falk noted its appearance in Norwegian place names with the meaning ‘striated meadow’.

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fjónir ‘hostilities’

fjón (noun f.): hatred

[2] fjónir: fjórir 566aˣ

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emk ‘I am’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[3] emk (‘em ek’): so 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ, er ek Flat, ‘er mek’ DG8

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stál ‘of steel-’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow < stálregn (noun n.)

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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stál ‘of steel-’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow < stálregn (noun n.)

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

regns ‘rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < stálregn (noun n.)

[4] ‑regns: ‘rengs’ DG8

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

regns ‘rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < stálregn (noun n.)

[4] ‑regns: ‘rengs’ DG8

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

boða ‘announcers’

boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker

kennings

sex boða stálregns,
‘six announcers of steel-rain ’
   = WARRIORS

steel-rain → BATTLE
six announcers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Þó ‘Yet’

þó (adv.): though

[5] Þó: nú DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

Close

emk ‘I am’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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enn ‘still’

2. enn (adv.): still, yet, again

[5] enn at: ok 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ, enn ok DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[5] enn at: ok 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ, enn ok DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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mun ‘the satisfaction’

munr (noun m.; °-ar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -i): mind, pleasure

[5] mun: namk DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

Close

manna ‘of men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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morðs ‘of battle}’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle

[6] morðs varliga orðinn: morð varlegra forðum DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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varliga ‘barely’

varliga (adv.): barely

[6] morðs varliga orðinn: morð varlegra forðum DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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orðinn ‘turned’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[6] morðs varliga orðinn: morð varlegra forðum DG8

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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þó ‘nonetheless’

þó (adv.): though

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þeira ‘their’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[7, 8] bíta skarar þeira ‘their scalps to be cleaved’: Lit. ‘to bite their hair’; ‘sword(s)’ must be understood as the implied subject of bíta

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þrítøgr ‘thirty’

þrítigr (adj.): thirty

notes

[5-6, 8] þó emk enn varliga orðinn þrítøgr at mun manna morðs ‘yet I am still barely turned thirty to the satisfaction of men of battle [WARRIORS]’: (a) The reading adopted here broadly follows Kock (NN §2484, followed by ÍF 6 and ÍS), except that þó is taken as an adv. within a main clause rather than a conj. introducing a subordinate clause. The interpretation of at mun manna (morðs) as ‘to the satisfaction of men (of battle)’ originates with Gaertner (1907, 333), who compares at mun banda ‘at the will/pleasure of the gods’ (Eskál Vell 8/2, Edáð Banddr 9/1); cf. also í mun manni ‘after the man’s wishes’ (KormǪ Lv 60/3V (Korm 81)). Its precise meaning in context is not evident, and this seems to have led Finnur Jónsson to emend in Skj B. (b) Skj B reads ‘now’ for þó ‘though’ in l. 5 (with Flat, to avoid the repetition of þó in l. 7), ok ‘and’ for at ‘to’ (with all the mss except Flat), man ‘remember’ for mun ‘satisfaction’ (as suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson: a common scribal confusion or variation if it is a verb), and morð ‘killing, battle’ for morðs (with DG8), giving the sense ‘now I am hardly yet turned thirty, and I remember the fall of men’. This gives clearer meaning, but it demands the assumption of some scribal improbabilities. For example, it is difficult to see why the reading should have been altered to þó everywhere but in the otherwise rather unreliable DG8, while the reverse development is not hard to explain. Further, it creates full rhyme in the odd line (though this is paralleled, e.g. in Þorm Lv 3/1V (Fbr 19), Lv 6/3V (Fbr 24) and Lv 8/3V (Fbr 26)).

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skarar ‘scalps’

skǫr (noun f.; °skarar; skarir): hair, planking

notes

[7, 8] bíta skarar þeira ‘their scalps to be cleaved’: Lit. ‘to bite their hair’; ‘sword(s)’ must be understood as the implied subject of bíta

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bíta ‘to be cleaved’

bíta (verb; °bítr; beit, bitu; bitinn): bite

[8] bíta: om. DG8

notes

[7, 8] bíta skarar þeira ‘their scalps to be cleaved’: Lit. ‘to bite their hair’; ‘sword(s)’ must be understood as the implied subject of bíta

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Þorm, a conversation follows the preceding stanza, in which the king asks Þormóðr how many men he has killed, and the poet replies with Lv 16. In ÞormR, the context is similar, but Þorm Lv 3V (Fbr 19) is also cited before this stanza. In ÓHLeg, the king asks the question for no apparent reason after Þormóðr has recited Bjarkamál on the way to Stiklestad (ON Stiklastaðir).

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Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.