skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Anon Líkn 30VII

George S. Tate (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Líknarbraut 30’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 260-1.

Anonymous PoemsLíknarbraut
293031

Krýp ‘creep’

krjúpa (verb): creep, kneel

notes

[1] krýp ek til kross ‘I creep to the Cross’: The phrase alludes to the Adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. See, e.g., the fragment (AM 266 4°, c. 1400) of the Gufudalr Ordinary, adapted from that of Nidaros: Þui næst skal prestr fara vr messu hökli ok af skoou[m] ok hosum ok kriupi til kross berrfættr ok syngia þad er til er skipat ‘Then shall the priest remove the chasuble and his shoes and hose and creep barefoot to the crucifix and sing that which is specified’ (Magnus Már Lárusson 1958, 209). The phrase ‘creep to the Cross’ only occurs in Germanic vernaculars (see OED: creep 3; cf. Swed. krypa till krysse (C16th), Ahnlund 1924, 180); Lat. employs less descriptive verbs (procedo, venio ad crucem salutandam), but more is meant by krjúpa here than LP’s ‘to prostrate oneself or fall upon one’s knees’. The verb denotes moving forward in veneration or penitence rather than static kneeling or prostration and is attested in skaldic verse as early as Þloft Glækv 8/4I (C11th).

Close

ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[1] krýp ek til kross ‘I creep to the Cross’: The phrase alludes to the Adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. See, e.g., the fragment (AM 266 4°, c. 1400) of the Gufudalr Ordinary, adapted from that of Nidaros: Þui næst skal prestr fara vr messu hökli ok af skoou[m] ok hosum ok kriupi til kross berrfættr ok syngia þad er til er skipat ‘Then shall the priest remove the chasuble and his shoes and hose and creep barefoot to the crucifix and sing that which is specified’ (Magnus Már Lárusson 1958, 209). The phrase ‘creep to the Cross’ only occurs in Germanic vernaculars (see OED: creep 3; cf. Swed. krypa till krysse (C16th), Ahnlund 1924, 180); Lat. employs less descriptive verbs (procedo, venio ad crucem salutandam), but more is meant by krjúpa here than LP’s ‘to prostrate oneself or fall upon one’s knees’. The verb denotes moving forward in veneration or penitence rather than static kneeling or prostration and is attested in skaldic verse as early as Þloft Glækv 8/4I (C11th).

Close

til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[1] krýp ek til kross ‘I creep to the Cross’: The phrase alludes to the Adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. See, e.g., the fragment (AM 266 4°, c. 1400) of the Gufudalr Ordinary, adapted from that of Nidaros: Þui næst skal prestr fara vr messu hökli ok af skoou[m] ok hosum ok kriupi til kross berrfættr ok syngia þad er til er skipat ‘Then shall the priest remove the chasuble and his shoes and hose and creep barefoot to the crucifix and sing that which is specified’ (Magnus Már Lárusson 1958, 209). The phrase ‘creep to the Cross’ only occurs in Germanic vernaculars (see OED: creep 3; cf. Swed. krypa till krysse (C16th), Ahnlund 1924, 180); Lat. employs less descriptive verbs (procedo, venio ad crucem salutandam), but more is meant by krjúpa here than LP’s ‘to prostrate oneself or fall upon one’s knees’. The verb denotes moving forward in veneration or penitence rather than static kneeling or prostration and is attested in skaldic verse as early as Þloft Glækv 8/4I (C11th).

Close

kross ‘the Cross’

kross (noun m.; °-, dat. -i; -ar): cross, crucifix

notes

[1] krýp ek til kross ‘I creep to the Cross’: The phrase alludes to the Adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. See, e.g., the fragment (AM 266 4°, c. 1400) of the Gufudalr Ordinary, adapted from that of Nidaros: Þui næst skal prestr fara vr messu hökli ok af skoou[m] ok hosum ok kriupi til kross berrfættr ok syngia þad er til er skipat ‘Then shall the priest remove the chasuble and his shoes and hose and creep barefoot to the crucifix and sing that which is specified’ (Magnus Már Lárusson 1958, 209). The phrase ‘creep to the Cross’ only occurs in Germanic vernaculars (see OED: creep 3; cf. Swed. krypa till krysse (C16th), Ahnlund 1924, 180); Lat. employs less descriptive verbs (procedo, venio ad crucem salutandam), but more is meant by krjúpa here than LP’s ‘to prostrate oneself or fall upon one’s knees’. The verb denotes moving forward in veneration or penitence rather than static kneeling or prostration and is attested in skaldic verse as early as Þloft Glækv 8/4I (C11th).

Close

glæpa ‘of sin’

glœpr (noun m.): sin, misdeed

notes

[1-2] bönd glæpa ‘bonds of sin’: Cf. Prov. V.22 funibus peccatorum suorum constringitur ‘fettered by the bonds of his sins’. Skj B takes bönd with knosuð (l. 2) (i.e. ‘broken bonds’) and glæpa with þjósti (l. 4); NN §1393, unable to see how broken bands can then be loosened, rejects this reading.

Close

knosuð ‘torn’

knosa (verb): [torn]

Close

bönd ‘the bonds’

band (noun n.; °-s; *-): band, bond

notes

[1-2] bönd glæpa ‘bonds of sin’: Cf. Prov. V.22 funibus peccatorum suorum constringitur ‘fettered by the bonds of his sins’. Skj B takes bönd with knosuð (l. 2) (i.e. ‘broken bonds’) and glæpa with þjósti (l. 4); NN §1393, unable to see how broken bands can then be loosened, rejects this reading.

Close

af ‘thereby’

af (prep.): from

Close

losna ‘are loosened’

losna (verb): loosen

Close

ótta ‘fear’

ótti (noun m.; °-a): fear < óttafullr (adj.)

[3] óttafullr: ‘ótta f[...]llr’ B, ‘ótta fụllr’ 399a‑bˣ

Close

fullr ‘ful’

2. fullr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): full, complete < óttafullr (adj.)

[3] óttafullr: ‘ótta f[...]llr’ B, ‘ótta fụllr’ 399a‑bˣ

Close

öllu ‘Wholly’

allr (adj.): all

[3] öllu: ‘[...]llu’ B, ọ̈llu 399a‑bˣ

Close

frá ‘away from’

frá (prep.): from

notes

[4] frá þjósti ‘away from anger’: Approaching the Cross (on the altar) ‘away from anger’ may allude to Christ’s exhortation in the Sermon on the Mount to put away anger and be reconciled with one’s brother before making an offering at the altar (Matt. V.22, 24-5), an injunction especially appropriate in a monastic context. The þjóst- : brjóst- rhyme also occurs in EGils Guðkv 30/2IV and Lil 48/8.

Close

þjósti ‘anger’

þjóstr (noun m.; °dat. -i): rage, anger, rancour

notes

[4] frá þjósti ‘away from anger’: Approaching the Cross (on the altar) ‘away from anger’ may allude to Christ’s exhortation in the Sermon on the Mount to put away anger and be reconciled with one’s brother before making an offering at the altar (Matt. V.22, 24-5), an injunction especially appropriate in a monastic context. The þjóst- : brjóst- rhyme also occurs in EGils Guðkv 30/2IV and Lil 48/8.

Close

Dýrt ‘the precious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

dýrt píslartré,
‘the precious Passion-tree, ’
   = CROSS

the precious Passion-tree, → CROSS
Close

hræddu ‘With a fearful’

1. hræddr (adj.): afraid

Close

hug ‘’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < huggóðr (adj.): merciful

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

góðs ‘of the benevolent’

góðr (adj.): good < huggóðr (adj.): merciful

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

blóði ‘with blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

[6] blóði: ‘bl[...]de’ B, blọ́ði 399a‑bˣ

notes

[6] blóði (dat.) ‘blood’: Analogous ll. occur in Has 12/4 huggóðr jöfurr blóði and ÞKolb Gunndr 1/6V hugmóðr drifinn blóði.

Close

grams ‘king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

píslar ‘Passion’

písl (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(Maurit 650²²)): torture < píslartré (noun n.)

kennings

dýrt píslartré,
‘the precious Passion-tree, ’
   = CROSS

the precious Passion-tree, → CROSS
Close

tré ‘tree’

tré (noun n.; °-s; tré/trjó, gen. trjá, dat. trjóm/trjám): tree < píslartré (noun n.)

kennings

dýrt píslartré,
‘the precious Passion-tree, ’
   = CROSS

the precious Passion-tree, → CROSS
Close

geisla ‘of rays’

geisli (noun m.): beam of light

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

geisla ‘of rays’

geisli (noun m.): beam of light

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

huggóðs grams grundar geisla.
‘of the benevolent king of the land of rays.’
   = God

the land of rays. → SKY/HEAVEN
the benevolent king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

This st. marks the beginning of the poem’s several direct references to the liturgy for Good Friday, including the Adoration of the Cross (adoratio crucis) and the Reproaches (improperia) of Christ from the Cross (see sts 43-5), signalled by the phrase Mín þjóð ‘O my people’ 45/1, echoing the recurrent Popule meus of the rite. Between these two markers (sts 30 and 45), the poet draws occasional images from the two famous Cross hymns by Venantius Fortunatus (C6th), Pange lingua (sung during the Adoration) and Vexilla regis (the processional hymn at its conclusion); these allusions are pointed out in the Notes. On the history of the rite, see Römer 1955 and Schmidt 1956-7, II, 789-803; for Scandinavia, Gjerløw 1961 and Björkman 1957, 266-7, 282-5; on Líkn, Tate 1978.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.