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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Glækv 3I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Glælognskviða 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 867.

Þórarinn loftungaGlælognskviða
234

Þars Ôleifr
áðan byggði,
áðr hann hvarf
til himinríkis,
ok þar varð,
sem vitu allir,
kykvasettr
ór konungmanni.

Þars Ôleifr áðan byggði, áðr hann hvarf til himinríkis, ok þar, sem allir vitu, varð kykvasettr ór konungmanni.

Where Óláfr previously dwelt, before he departed to the heavenly kingdom, and there, as all know, he became enshrined alive, having been king.

Mss: (486v), 39(11ra) (Hkr); Holm2(71v), 325VI(39vb), 321ˣ(273), 61(128vb), 325V(86rb), 325VII(40r), Bb(203rb), Flat(127va), Tóm(159r) (ÓH)

Readings: [1] Þars (‘þar er’): þar 61, 325VII, Tóm, þá er 325V    [2] áðan: óðal 325VII    [3] hann: om. 325VII;    hvarf: ‘h[…]’ 39    [4] himin‑: ‘him[…]’ 39, himi‑ Bb, Flat, Tóm    [5] varð: var Holm2, 325VI, 321ˣ    [6] vitu: vita 39    [7] kykvasettr: kvikva settr Holm2, kvika sett 325VI, 321ˣ, ‘kykkuaz hatur’ or ‘kykkuar hatur’ 61, ‘kvikas havttr’ 325V, ‘kyqvaþ har’ 325VII, ‘kvikva setr’ Bb, ‘kuikligr hattr’ Flat, ‘kykkuazt hatur’ Tóm    [8] ór: um 39, af 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, á 325V;    konung‑: konungs 325V

Editions: Skj AI, 325, Skj BI, 300, Skald I, 152, NN §965; Hkr 1893-1901, II, 520, IV, 174-5, ÍF 27, 406-7 (ÓHHkr ch. 245); ÓH 1941, I, 603 (ch. 245), Flat 1860-8, II, 377; Magerøy 1948, 11, 16, 20-1.

Context: See Context to st. 2 above.

Notes: [1] þars ‘where’: The reference is to Þrándheimr (Trøndelag), mentioned in st. 2/4. The variant þar ‘there’ produces simpler syntax, in which the first clause of st. 3 is not subordinate to st. 2/5-8, but although it is represented in classes B and C of ÓH, þars has stronger support, appearing in the remaining ÓH mss and the two Hkr mss. — [4] himinríkis ‘the heavenly kingdom’: A loan-translation from OE heofonrice, of identical meaning (Fischer 1909, 5). In skaldic verse prior to the C12th, the term is only found in the works of Þórarinn: here, in st. 4/4 and in Þloft Hfl 1/2. Himi- appears to be an acceptable variant (see LP: himinríki). — [5] þar ‘there’: That is, in Þrándheimr rather than in heaven (himinríki). These lines refer to Óláfr’s translation to a shrine in Clemenskirkja (Clemenskirken, S. Clement’s Church). — [7] kykvasettr ‘enshrined alive’: Kykr and kvikr ‘alive, living’ are variant forms (Fritzner, CVC: kvikr); kvikr appears at st. 5/6. As can be seen from the Readings, the cpd kykvasettr posed problems for scribes. It is a p. p. from kviksetja ‘to place alive, bury alive’ (Fritzner: kviksetja), but it refers here to a Christian saint who lives on in the grave; cf. also Þstf Stuttdr 6/4II kviksettra (with gen. pl. ‑ra by emendation) ‘holy ones’ and Note. Here the meaning appears to be that Óláfr has been placed in a shrine in the church, but as a saint he is still alive (kykva), as witnessed by the miraculous growth of his hair and nails (st. 5). For discussion of the term see Magerøy (1948, 21) and Rainford (1995, 111). Kock (NN §965; Skald) prints instead kykvasætr, a proposed cpd noun meaning ‘living seat’, referring to the saint’s shrine and its contents, in support of a rather forced interpretation of Þstf Stuttdr 6/4II .

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  5. CVC = Cleasby, Richard, Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and W. A. Craigie. 1957. An Icelandic-English Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford: Clarendon.
  6. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  7. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  8. ÓH 1941 = Johnsen, Oscar Albert and Jón Helgason, eds. 1941. Saga Óláfs konungs hins helga: Den store saga om Olav den hellige efter pergamenthåndskrift i Kungliga biblioteket i Stockholm nr. 2 4to med varianter fra andre håndskrifter. 2 vols. Det norske historiske kildeskriftfond skrifter 53. Oslo: Dybwad.
  9. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  10. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  11. Rainford, Jessica. 1995. ‘Óláfr Haraldsson, King and Saint of Norway, and the Development of Skaldic Style (ca.1015-ca.1153)’. D. Phil. thesis. University of Oxford.
  12. Fischer, Frank. 1909. Die Lehnwörter des Altwestnordischen. Palaestra 85. Berlin: Mayer & Müller.
  13. Magerøy, Hallvard, ed. 1948. Glælognskviða av Toraren Lovtunge. Bidrag til nordisk filologi av stederende ved Universitet i Oslo 12. Oslo: Aschehoug.
  14. Internal references
  15. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  16. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Separate Saga of S. Óláfr / Óláfs saga helga in sérstaka (ÓH)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxvi-clxxix.
  17. Not published: do not cite (ÓHHkrI)
  18. Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Hǫfuðlausn 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 850.
  19. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Þórarinn stuttfeldr, Stuttfeldardrápa 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 477-8.
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