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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Sex 6II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 6’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 117-18.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonSexstefja
567

hvar ‘most’

hvar (adv.): where < hvargrimmligr (adj.)

[2] hvar‑: halir H, Hr

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rofizk ‘been slashed’

rjúfa (verb): break

[3] rofizk: rofit H, Hr

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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hafa ‘has [lit. treaties have]’

hafa (verb): have

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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opt ‘often’

opt (adv.): often

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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fyr ‘at the hands of’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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jǫfri ‘the ruler’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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Haraldr ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

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sáttir ‘peace’

sátt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): settlement

notes

[3, 4] sáttir hafa opt rofizk fyr jǫfri ‘peace has [lit. treatises have] often been slashed at the hands of the ruler’: This is assumed here to refer to Haraldr’s propensity for warfare. If sáttir referred to particular truces or treaties, the statement would present Haraldr unflatteringly as a breaker of them, but Finnur Jónsson may be correct in claiming (in Hkr 1893-1901, IV) that sáttir need only mean ‘peace’ in a general sense.

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Hǫss ‘of the grey’

hǫss (adj.): grey

[5] Hǫss (‘hꜹs’): hauss H

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rautt ‘You reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[5] rautt (‘rꜹðtu’): ‘rauzstu’ Hr

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hvassar ‘the sharp’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

[5] hvassar: hvassan Hr

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hróðigr ‘triumphant’

hróðigr (adj.): glorious

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blóði ‘with blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

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ímr ‘the dark wolf’

ímr (noun m.): dark wolf, dusky one

notes

[7] ímr ‘the dark wolf’: The word etymologically embraces the sense ‘dark’ (AEW), and there may be play on the epithet hǫss ‘grey’, here applied to the eagle but to the wolf in the sole citation in Fritzner.

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krôs ‘a morsel’

krás (noun f.; °; -ir): morsel

[7] krôs (‘kras’): so Hr, kárs Kˣ, H, ‘cars’ 39, ‘kars’ F, E, J2ˣ

notes

[7] krôs ‘a morsel’: Unusually, Hr is alone in having what seems to be the correct reading, and one wonders whether the other mss could contain a genuine, metathesised variant. The noun is f. and most often found in pl. krásir.

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hvars ‘wherever’

hvars (conj.): wherever

[7] hvars: hvarf 39, hvar E, H, Hr

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kómuð ‘you went’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[7] kómuð: komu H

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hingat ‘here [to Norway]’

hingat (adv.): (to) here

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fœrir ‘you travelled’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[8] fœrir: ‘færít’ F, ‘færim’ E, ‘færi’ Hr

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, after triumphs in the land of the Saracens (Serkland) and Sicily (Sikiley), Haraldr returns to Constantinople (Miklagarðr) then journeys to Jerusalem. It is said that he fought eighteen pitched battles in the course of all his travels. In H-Hr, the summary follows a narrative about Haraldr’s defeat of a Sicilian city through feigning his own death.

The first helmingr uses 3rd pers. verbs to present common knowledge about Haraldr’s achievements; in the second Haraldr is addressed directly with 2nd pers. sg. rautt ‘you reddened’ and 2nd pers. pl. kómuð ‘you went’ as well as the apostrophe hróðigr konungr ‘triumphant king’.

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