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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Sex 30II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 30’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 145-6.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonSexstefja
293031

Geirs ‘spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear

[1] Geirs: ‘[…]irs’ B, ‘Geírs’ 744ˣ

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

oddum ‘points’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

greddir ‘The feeder’

greddir (noun m.): feeder

[1] greddir: so Tˣ, C, græddir R, græðir U, ‘gr[…]’ B, ‘gre.dir’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR
Close

grunn ‘shallow’

2. grunnr (adj.; °compar. gryðri): shallow

[2] grunn hvert stika sunnar: abbrev. as ‘g. h. st’.’ U

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

hvert ‘every’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[2] grunn hvert stika sunnar: abbrev. as ‘g. h. st’.’ U

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

stika ‘barricade’

1. stika (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [barricade]

[2] grunn hvert stika sunnar: abbrev. as ‘g. h. st’.’ U

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

sunnar ‘further south’

sunnar (adv.): further south

[2] grunn hvert stika sunnar: abbrev. as ‘g. h. st’.’ U;    sunnar: ‘[…]ar’ B

notes

[1, 2] stika sunnar oddum geirs hvert grunn ‘barricade with spear points, further south, every shallow [lit. ‘each shallow’]’: This seems to be a reference to the staking of shallows as a coastal defence; cf. Steinn Óldr 8/4 stika dǫrrum ‘barricade with spears’.

Close

hirð ‘retinue’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

[3] hirð þats hann skal varða: abbrev. as ‘h’. þ. h’. s. v̄.’ U

Close

þats ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] hirð þats hann skal varða: abbrev. as ‘h’. þ. h’. s. v̄.’ U;    þats (‘þat er’): þá er Tˣ, A, 744ˣ, ‘[…]’ B, þar C

Close

hann ‘he’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

[3] hirð þats hann skal varða: abbrev. as ‘h’. þ. h’. s. v̄.’ U;    hann: ‘h̄’ C

Close

skal ‘has’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[3] hirð þats hann skal varða: abbrev. as ‘h’. þ. h’. s. v̄.’ U

Close

varða ‘to defend’

2. varða (verb): defend

[3] hirð þats hann skal varða: abbrev. as ‘h’. þ. h’. s. v̄.’ U;    varða: verða B, C

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hrægammr (noun m.)

[4] hræ‑: ‘hre‑’ U

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

hræ ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hrægammr (noun m.)

[4] hræ‑: ‘hre‑’ U

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

gamms ‘vulture’

gammr (noun m.): vulture < hrægammr (noun m.)

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

gamms ‘vulture’

gammr (noun m.): vulture < hrægammr (noun m.)

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

ara ‘of the eagle’

1. ari (noun m.; °-a; -ar): eagle

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

ara ‘of the eagle’

1. ari (noun m.; °-a; -ar): eagle

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

ara ‘of the eagle’

1. ari (noun m.; °-a; -ar): eagle

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ;    sævar: ‘.s.’ U

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ;    sævar: ‘.s.’ U

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[4] ‑gamms ara sævar: ‘[…]ar’ B, ‘….s ara se᷎far’ 744ˣ;    sævar: ‘.s.’ U

kennings

Greddir hrægamms sævar ara
‘The feeder of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the sea of the eagle → BLOOD
the corpse-vulture of the BLOOD → RAVEN
The feeder of the RAVEN → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hrægamms sævar ara ‘of the corpse-vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’: The base-word greddir ‘feeder’ (see LP and references there) evidently forms a warrior-kenning, with a term for a beast of the battlefield in the gen. as determinant. (a) The construction assumed here is overloaded (so also Finnur Jónsson in Skj B, marking hrægamms ara as unexplained): -gamms sævar ara ‘of the vulture of the sea of the eagle [BLOOD > RAVEN]’ is an adequate determinant, leaving hræ- ‘corpse, carrion’ as unnecessary (cf. val- ‘slaughter-’ in st. 28/4). (b) Rather more tortuously, in terms of w. o., the determinant referring to a bird of the battlefield could be formed from hræ- and sævar ‘corpse-sea [BLOOD]’ plus either gamms ‘vulture’ or ara ‘eagle’, but the one not deployed in the kenning would be redundant. (c) Kock interprets the gen. sg. ara sævar ‘of eagle’s sea [BLOOD]’ as adjectival, ‘bloody’, hence ara sævar hrægamms greddir ‘the one who feeds the birds which feed on bloody corpses’ (NN §864). (d) To take sævar with stika grunn hvert, hence ‘stake every shallow of the sea’ does not help, since ara (or gamms) is still redundant.

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See Context to st. 29. 

The placing of these ll. in Sex is extremely uncertain: see Context to st. 29 and Introduction to Sex.

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