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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Sex 21II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Sexstefja 21’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 135-6.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonSexstefja
202122

Holm ‘of the Island’

holmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): island, islet < holmbúi (noun m.)

kennings

Hneykir Holmbúa
‘The confounder of the Island-dwellers ’
   = Haraldr

The confounder of the Island-dwellers → Haraldr

notes

[1] Holmbúa ‘of the Island-dwellers’: A holmr m. is a small island, but the reference of this expression is ambiguous. Finnur Jónsson suggested the inhabitants of the islands off Rogaland (Hkr 1893-1901, IV and LP), while others including the eds of Hkr (ÍF 28 and 1991) favoured the Eydanir, the Danes of Sjælland, Falster, Fyn, and many smaller islands. The implication may be that Haraldr is no less zealous in subduing rebellion within Norway as he was in the Dan. territories; cf. Arn Hardr 6.

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búa ‘dwellers’

1. búi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): dweller, inhabitant < holmbúi (noun m.)

kennings

Hneykir Holmbúa
‘The confounder of the Island-dwellers ’
   = Haraldr

The confounder of the Island-dwellers → Haraldr

notes

[1] Holmbúa ‘of the Island-dwellers’: A holmr m. is a small island, but the reference of this expression is ambiguous. Finnur Jónsson suggested the inhabitants of the islands off Rogaland (Hkr 1893-1901, IV and LP), while others including the eds of Hkr (ÍF 28 and 1991) favoured the Eydanir, the Danes of Sjælland, Falster, Fyn, and many smaller islands. The implication may be that Haraldr is no less zealous in subduing rebellion within Norway as he was in the Dan. territories; cf. Arn Hardr 6.

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hneykir ‘The confounder’

hneykir (noun m.): confounder

[1] hneykir: hnekkir F, hnekkir twice Mork

kennings

Hneykir Holmbúa
‘The confounder of the Island-dwellers ’
   = Haraldr

The confounder of the Island-dwellers → Haraldr
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Rauma ‘the Raumar’

2. Raumar (noun m.; °-s; -ar): the Raumar

notes

[2] Rauma ‘the Raumar’: The people of Romerike (Raumaríki), north-east of Oslofjorden.

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[3] þar: ‘þet’ FskAˣ

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hykk ‘I think’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

notes

[3] hykk; frœkna ‘I think; of the bold’: The reading of the Fsk mss, Mork and H, frægsta ‘most famous’ would also fit well, and would form a skothending with the verb, provided the form was read as hygg’k, as in Andersson and Gade 2000, 216.

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

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frœkna ‘bold’

frœkinn (adj.; °compar. frøknari, superl. frøknastr): bold

[3] frœkna: frægsta FskBˣ, FskAˣ, Mork, H, fegrsta E, fræga Flat, ‘fregrsta’ Hr

notes

[3] hykk; frœkna ‘I think; of the bold’: The reading of the Fsk mss, Mork and H, frægsta ‘most famous’ would also fit well, and would form a skothending with the verb, provided the form was read as hygg’k, as in Andersson and Gade 2000, 216.

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fylking ‘the troop’

fylking (noun f.): troop

[4] fylking: fylkin 39

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Haralds ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

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gingu ‘advanced’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[4] gingu: ‘g[...]g[...]’ Mork

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gǫrr ‘used’

1. gǫrr (adj.): ample, perfect

[5] gǫrr: so all others, ‘górr’ Kˣ

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gjaldi ‘requital’

gjald (noun n.): payment, reward, return

[5] gjaldi: gjǫldum FskAˣ

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gramr ‘the king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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réð ‘had his way’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[6] réð: om. E, ‘r[...]ð’ Mork

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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[6] þá: om. H, Hr

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téði ‘served’

tjá (verb): to put in order, prepare

[6] téði: tæði 39, H, ‘reðe’ E

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hár ‘the towering’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hár hrótgarmr
‘the towering roof-hound ’
   = FIRE

the towering roof-hound → FIRE
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í ‘into’

(non-lexical)

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hrót ‘roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof < hrótgarmr (noun m.)

[8] hrót‑: so 39, F, E, hrot‑ Kˣ, FskBˣ, J2ˣ, FskAˣ, Mork, Flat, H, ‘hrott‑’ Hr

kennings

hár hrótgarmr
‘the towering roof-hound ’
   = FIRE

the towering roof-hound → FIRE

notes

[8] hrótgarmr ‘the roof-hound [FIRE]’: Hrót n. occurs in poetry with the sense ‘roof, thatch’ (LP), and garmr is a favoured base-word in fire-kennings presenting an image of flame as a hound or wolf attacking buildings or trees (LP: garmr; Meissner 101). Garmr is also the name of the hound whose howling presages ragnarǫk ‘the doom of the gods’ (Vsp 44 etc.).

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garmr ‘hound’

garmr (noun m.): dog < hrótgarmr (noun m.)

[8] ‑garmr: gramr FskAˣ

kennings

hár hrótgarmr
‘the towering roof-hound ’
   = FIRE

the towering roof-hound → FIRE

notes

[8] hrótgarmr ‘the roof-hound [FIRE]’: Hrót n. occurs in poetry with the sense ‘roof, thatch’ (LP), and garmr is a favoured base-word in fire-kennings presenting an image of flame as a hound or wolf attacking buildings or trees (LP: garmr; Meissner 101). Garmr is also the name of the hound whose howling presages ragnarǫk ‘the doom of the gods’ (Vsp 44 etc.).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, after the battle at the Nissan (Niz), Haraldr ravages Romerike (Raumaríki) because the people had withheld taxes and supported his enemies; this st. appears first in the Hkr account. In Fsk, Mork and H-Hr the st. follows 19, with a brief note that Haraldr burned the settlements of Romerike.

Mork has l. 1 in the main text and ll. 1-8 in the lower margin in the same hand.

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