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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Magnfl 2II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Magnússflokkr 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 65-6.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonMagnússflokkr
123

Út ‘out’

út (adv.): out(side)

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here.

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rétt ‘’

3. réttr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): right, straight, direct

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here.

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skjóta ‘you launched’

skjóta (verb): shoot

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here.

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ekin ‘the driven’

aka (verb; °ekr; ók, óku; ekinn/akiðr(Búal³ 34¹‰)): drive

[2] ekin: eikin F, E, ekinn J2ˣ

notes

[2] ekin rô dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’: Jesch explains, ‘as it [was] turned to catch the wind’ (2001, 162). Ekin provides a regular resolution of two short syllables, while the variant eikin is metrically inappropriate, and seems to be influenced by the adj. eikinn ‘savage, hostile’, or by the noun eik(i) ‘oak tree(s)’. Finds from the Gokstad ship identified as sailyards are of birch and fir (Jesch 2001a, 162).

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dúðisk ‘shuddered’

dúða (verb): [shuddered]

notes

[2] ekin rô dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’: Jesch explains, ‘as it [was] turned to catch the wind’ (2001, 162). Ekin provides a regular resolution of two short syllables, while the variant eikin is metrically inappropriate, and seems to be influenced by the adj. eikinn ‘savage, hostile’, or by the noun eik(i) ‘oak tree(s)’. Finds from the Gokstad ship identified as sailyards are of birch and fir (Jesch 2001a, 162).

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‘sailyard’

3. rá (noun f.): sail-yard

notes

[2] ekin rô dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’: Jesch explains, ‘as it [was] turned to catch the wind’ (2001, 162). Ekin provides a regular resolution of two short syllables, while the variant eikin is metrically inappropriate, and seems to be influenced by the adj. eikinn ‘savage, hostile’, or by the noun eik(i) ‘oak tree(s)’. Finds from the Gokstad ship identified as sailyards are of birch and fir (Jesch 2001a, 162).

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snekkju ‘a warship’

snekkja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): warship

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here. — [2, 3] snekkju; þrítøgt skip ‘warship; thirty-benched ship’: This constitutes a useful piece of evidence that the snekkja, whose size and type are somewhat elusive, was not necessarily smaller than a skeið, as has been assumed (Falk specified twenty rowing stations, 1912, 102-4, but see Jesch 2001a, 126-7).

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snekkju ‘a warship’

snekkja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): warship

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here. — [2, 3] snekkju; þrítøgt skip ‘warship; thirty-benched ship’: This constitutes a useful piece of evidence that the snekkja, whose size and type are somewhat elusive, was not necessarily smaller than a skeið, as has been assumed (Falk specified twenty rowing stations, 1912, 102-4, but see Jesch 2001a, 126-7).

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en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here.

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þrítøgt ‘the thirty-benched’

þrítigr (adj.): thirty

[3] þrítøgt: ‘þritug’ J2ˣ

notes

[2, 3] snekkju; þrítøgt skip ‘warship; thirty-benched ship’: This constitutes a useful piece of evidence that the snekkja, whose size and type are somewhat elusive, was not necessarily smaller than a skeið, as has been assumed (Falk specified twenty rowing stations, 1912, 102-4, but see Jesch 2001a, 126-7).

Close

skip ‘ship’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here. — [2, 3] snekkju; þrítøgt skip ‘warship; thirty-benched ship’: This constitutes a useful piece of evidence that the snekkja, whose size and type are somewhat elusive, was not necessarily smaller than a skeið, as has been assumed (Falk specified twenty rowing stations, 1912, 102-4, but see Jesch 2001a, 126-7).

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skip ‘ship’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here. — [2, 3] snekkju; þrítøgt skip ‘warship; thirty-benched ship’: This constitutes a useful piece of evidence that the snekkja, whose size and type are somewhat elusive, was not necessarily smaller than a skeið, as has been assumed (Falk specified twenty rowing stations, 1912, 102-4, but see Jesch 2001a, 126-7).

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þrautar ‘at full stretch’

þraut (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): struggle

[3] þrautar: so 39, F, E, J2ˣ, þrauta Kˣ, papp18ˣ

notes

[3-4] þrautar ... þann tíð ‘at full stretch ... at that time’: Þrautar seems to be an adverbial gen. sg., with a sense comparable to til þrautar ‘to the utmost, at full stretch’ (cf. ÞjóðA Har 6, also in a context involving a snekkja). Both it and þann tíð ‘at that time’ are best taken, as by most eds, with the cl. in ll. 3-4 in which they are embedded. Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B construed þrautar with the cl. ekin r dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’, and þann tíð ‘at that time’ with the cl. rétt skjóta ‘you launched’, but this creates an extremely disjointed cl. arrangement which is decried by Kock (NN §848).

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þann ‘at that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[3-4] þrautar ... þann tíð ‘at full stretch ... at that time’: Þrautar seems to be an adverbial gen. sg., with a sense comparable to til þrautar ‘to the utmost, at full stretch’ (cf. ÞjóðA Har 6, also in a context involving a snekkja). Both it and þann tíð ‘at that time’ are best taken, as by most eds, with the cl. in ll. 3-4 in which they are embedded. Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B construed þrautar with the cl. ekin r dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’, and þann tíð ‘at that time’ with the cl. rétt skjóta ‘you launched’, but this creates an extremely disjointed cl. arrangement which is decried by Kock (NN §848).

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tíð ‘time’

1. tíð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time

notes

[3-4] þrautar ... þann tíð ‘at full stretch ... at that time’: Þrautar seems to be an adverbial gen. sg., with a sense comparable to til þrautar ‘to the utmost, at full stretch’ (cf. ÞjóðA Har 6, also in a context involving a snekkja). Both it and þann tíð ‘at that time’ are best taken, as by most eds, with the cl. in ll. 3-4 in which they are embedded. Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B construed þrautar with the cl. ekin r dúðisk ‘the driven sailyard shuddered’, and þann tíð ‘at that time’ with the cl. rétt skjóta ‘you launched’, but this creates an extremely disjointed cl. arrangement which is decried by Kock (NN §848).

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skríða ‘glide’

skríða (verb): creep, glide

notes

[1, 2, 3, 4] rétt skjóta snekkju út, en [rétt] ... skip skríða ‘you launched [lit. did launch] a warship out, and [made] the ... ship glide’: Rétt (2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. of ráða) in l. 1 forms a periphrastic pret. tense with the inf. skjóta ‘launch’, hence strictly ‘you did launch’. There is, however, no such verb to accompany skríða in l. 4, which also appears to be an inf. (a) The interpretation adopted with some reluctance here assumes that the infinitives skjóta and skríða are parallel, and both dependent on rétt. The resulting construction is awkward because the relationship of rétt and the inf. is different in the two instances. In rétt skjóta, lit. ‘did launch’ rétt is little more than an auxiliary and Magnús is the subject of the whole verb phrase, whereas in (rétt) skríða ‘made glide’ rétt again has Magnús as its subject, but it means ‘caused’, and the ship is the subject of skríða. It seems as though rétt is functioning rather like lét ‘caused’ here. Kock favoured this interpretation, comparing seggi vil ek í sal ganga ‘I want the men to go into the hall’ (Sigsk 44; NN §3228), but the behaviour of the verb vilja is not evidence for that of ráða. (b) The same meaning would be gained simply by assuming that, like skjóta, skríða can be causative, hence rétt skríða skip ‘you did make the ship glide’, but evidence for this is lacking. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B was to assume that the second, understood, occurrence of rétt is in effect 3rd sg. réð, hence rétt skjóta, en [réð] skríða, lit. ‘you did launch, and it did glide’ rather than ‘you made it glide’, but this displaces the problem rather than solving it. (d) A neater option altogether is to adopt the reading þrauta ‘did not fail’ in l. 3, i.e. 3rd pers. sg. pret. indic. of þrjóta with negative suffix -a, hence en skip þrauta skríða ‘and the ship did not fail to glide’. However, this makes the assumption that K alone (represented by and papp18ˣ) preserves the correct, straightforward, reading, and although this assumption seems almost unavoidable in st. 3/1 spornuðu(ð) ‘they/you trod’, it is in principle better avoided, and attractive K readings have not been adopted in sts 10/1 bru(t) and 14/2 elds / éls. (e) The J2ˣ reading þrítug implies a pl. skip ‘thirty-benched ships’ which could be subject to skríða ‘glide’, but a pres. tense verb seems unlikely here.

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Vægðit ‘did not spare’

1. vægja (verb): yield

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sveigðum ‘the swayed’

sveigja (verb): bend

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ótt ‘The raging’

2. óðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): raging, furious

[6] ótt: so F, E, J2ˣ, átt Kˣ, 39

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hlóðu ‘took down’

2. hlaða (verb): heap, pile

notes

[7] hlóðu ‘took down’: In what seems an abrupt end to the journey, the warriors take down the sail. Whether the normal sense of hlaða, ‘pile’, means here that the sail was taken off the yard and folded on the deck or merely that it was furled around the yard is not clear (cf. Falk 1912, 62; Jesch 2001a, 178). That the sail is not taken down but reefed is suggested by Finnur’s translation rebede (Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B), but this is rejected as a land-lubberly (landkrabbebetonade) explanation by Kock (NN §3228, Anm).

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hún ‘of the mast-top’

1. húnn (noun m.; °; húnar): knob < húnskrift (noun f.): decorated cloth of the mast-top

kennings

húnskript
‘the decorated cloth of the mast-top ’
   = SAIL

the decorated cloth of the mast-top → SAIL

notes

[8] húnskript ‘the decorated cloth of the mast-top [SAIL]’: Jesch (2001a, 161) points out that the skript ‘decoration, picture’ on the sail could be embroidered, painted or simply the effect of stitching in sections; cf. Seglit var sett með fögrum skriptum ‘The sail was laid out with beautiful decorations’ (Fms 10, 77, cited in CVC: skript). Sail-kennings are rare (Meissner 222), but this one reappears in SnSt Ht 78/8III and Sturl Hákkv 11/5 (see LP: húnskript).

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skript ‘the decorated cloth’

1. skrift (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): image < húnskrift (noun f.): decorated cloth of the mast-top

kennings

húnskript
‘the decorated cloth of the mast-top ’
   = SAIL

the decorated cloth of the mast-top → SAIL

notes

[8] húnskript ‘the decorated cloth of the mast-top [SAIL]’: Jesch (2001a, 161) points out that the skript ‘decoration, picture’ on the sail could be embroidered, painted or simply the effect of stitching in sections; cf. Seglit var sett með fögrum skriptum ‘The sail was laid out with beautiful decorations’ (Fms 10, 77, cited in CVC: skript). Sail-kennings are rare (Meissner 222), but this one reappears in SnSt Ht 78/8III and Sturl Hákkv 11/5 (see LP: húnskript).

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Sigtúnum ‘Sigtuna (Sigtúnir)’

Sigtúnir (noun f.): Sigtuna

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Making his way westwards from Novgorod (Hólmgarðr), Magnús stops in Sigtuna (Sigtúnir, Sweden), where his stepmother, Ástríðr, rallies support for him.

The st. is introduced, Svá segir Þjóðólfr í Magnúsflokki ‘As Þjóðólfr says in Magnússflokkr’—the only direct reference to the poem’s title.

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