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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Magn 5II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 92-3.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonStanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi
456

Saurstokkinn bar svíra
snarr Skônunga harri;
undrs, nema allvaldr Lundar
aldrprúðr fyrir haldi.
Gær flugu mold ok mýrar
(merki jarls ins sterkja
slóð drap framm at flóði)
flaugardǫrr (of hauga).

{Snarr harri Skônunga} bar saurstokkinn svíra; undrs, nema {aldrprúðr allvaldr Lundar} haldi fyrir. Flaugardǫrr flugu gær mold ok mýrar; merki ins sterkja jarls drap slóð of hauga framm at flóði.

{The valiant ruler of the Skánungar} [= Magnús] went with a mud-spattered neck; it is a wonder unless {the life-splendid overlord of Lund} [= Magnús] holds out. Flighted spears flew yesterday over earth and bogs; the standard of the powerful jarl beat a track across the hills onwards to the sea.

Mss: (515v), 39(17rb), F(40vb), E(8v), J2ˣ(253r) (Hkr); H(11v), Hr(10va) (H-Hr)

Readings: [1] bar: berr E, J2ˣ    [2] Skônunga harri: harri mjǫg fjarri Hr    [3] undrs (‘undr er’): verðr 39, F, vátr H, Hr;    nema allvaldr Lundar: sem veigðu skauti H, Hr;    Lundar: ‘vndar’ 39, yrði F    [4] aldrprúðr: ‘allde pruðr’ E, ‘valldrvðr’ H, Hr;    haldi: halda F    [5] Gær: ‘ger’ 39, J2ˣ, ‘ser’ E, ‘gíær’ H, geirr Hr;    mold: ‘mǫlld’ E    [6] jarls: so F, E, J2ˣ, H, Hr, ‘I.’ Kˣ, ‘J.’ 39;    sterkja (‘sterka’): sterki E    [7] slóð drap: ‘stoð dreif’ H, Hr;    flóði: flæði Hr    [8] hauga: augu H

Editions: Skj AI, 365-6, Skj BI, 336, Skald I, 169-70; Hkr 1893-1901, III, 59-60, IV, 199, ÍF 28, 53, Hkr 1991, 591 (Mgóð ch. 31), F 1871, 187, E 1916, 28-9; Fms 6, 80-1 (Mgóð ch. 38), Fms 12, 135-6.

Context: This follows Magn 4, uninterruptedly in Hkr, and with a brief link in H-Hr.

Notes: [2, 3] harri Skônunga; allvaldr Lundar ‘ruler of the Skánungar [= Magnús]; overlord of Lund [= Magnús]’: These must refer to the victorious Magnús, who claimed supremacy over Skåne (Skáney), now in southern Sweden, but formerly part of the Dan. territories (cf. Magn 9, where í Danmǫrku ‘in Denmark’ and of Skáney ‘across Skåne’ are juxtaposed. Lund (from ON lundr m. ‘grove’) is one of the largest and oldest centres of population in Skåne. That it was Magnús who got a saurstokkinn svíra ‘mud-spattered neck’ (i.e. was spattered right up to the neck) might seem undignified, but taken together with ll. 3-4 this seems to suggest that he stopped at nothing, hacking through bogs to pursue his enemy and defend his perceived rights. — [4] halda fyrir ‘holds out’: This seems to be a rare absolute use of halda, with adverbial fyrir, cf. halda e-u fyrir e-m/e-u ‘withhold sth. from sby/sth., protect against’ (cf. Fritzner: halda 9). The thought may be specifically ‘hold (the land against Sveinn / the enemy)’, as suggested in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B. — [5] flugu ‘flew’: This could be construed with merki jarls, the noun phrase closest to it (so Fms 12), but the present arrangement gives the best sense and is adopted by most eds. — [8] flaugardǫrr ‘flighted spears’: Flaug f. means both abstract ‘flight’ and ‘(weather)vane’; in skaldic poetry it usually occurs with a word for ‘missile’ in the gen. pl., e. g. Vígf Hák l. 8I flaug darra ‘flight of spears’ or Hfr ErfÓl 4/3I flaug brodda ‘flight of points’. Here the cpd is the other way around, and the meaning might be ‘spear with a pennant’ or simply ‘flying spear’, i.e. ‘throwing spear’ (so LP (1860): flaug; Hkr 1893-1901, IV and subsequent eds). — [8] of hauga ‘across the hills’: Haugr can refer either to a natural hill or a burial mound, and the phrase could be taken with either of the clauses in the second helmingr. The arrangement adopted here is also that of the eds listed above. The same phrase recurs in st. 9, again referring to Skåne.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. LP (1860) = Sveinbjörn Egilsson, ed. 1860. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis. Copenhagen: Societas Regia antiquariorum septentrionalium.
  6. Fritzner = Fritzner, Johan. 1883-96. Ordbog over det gamle norske sprog. 3 vols. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske forlagsforening. 4th edn. Rpt. 1973. Oslo etc.: Universitetsforlaget.
  7. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  8. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  9. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  10. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  11. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  12. Internal references
  13. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  14. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hulda and Hrokkinskinna (H-Hr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  15. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Vígfúss Víga-Glúmsson, Poem about Hákon jarl(?)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 362.
  16. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 407.
  17. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 91-2.
  18. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi 9’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 97.
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