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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ÞjóðA Magn 5II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Stanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 92-3.

Þjóðólfr ArnórssonStanzas about Magnús Óláfsson in Danaveldi
456

snarr ‘The valiant’

snarr (adj.): gallant, bold

kennings

Snarr harri Skônunga
‘The valiant ruler of the Skánungar ’
   = Magnús

The valiant ruler of the Skánungar → Magnús
Close

Skônunga ‘of the Skánungar’

skánungr (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Skánungar

[2] Skônunga harri: harri mjǫg fjarri Hr

kennings

Snarr harri Skônunga
‘The valiant ruler of the Skánungar ’
   = Magnús

The valiant ruler of the Skánungar → Magnús

notes

[2, 3] harri Skônunga; allvaldr Lundar ‘ruler of the Skánungar [= Magnús]; overlord of Lund [= Magnús]’: These must refer to the victorious Magnús, who claimed supremacy over Skåne (Skáney), now in southern Sweden, but formerly part of the Dan. territories (cf. Magn 9, where í Danmǫrku ‘in Denmark’ and of Skáney ‘across Skåne’ are juxtaposed. Lund (from ON lundr m. ‘grove’) is one of the largest and oldest centres of population in Skåne. That it was Magnús who got a saurstokkinn svíra ‘mud-spattered neck’ (i.e. was spattered right up to the neck) might seem undignified, but taken together with ll. 3-4 this seems to suggest that he stopped at nothing, hacking through bogs to pursue his enemy and defend his perceived rights.

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harri ‘ruler’

1. harri (noun m.; °-a): lord

[2] Skônunga harri: harri mjǫg fjarri Hr

kennings

Snarr harri Skônunga
‘The valiant ruler of the Skánungar ’
   = Magnús

The valiant ruler of the Skánungar → Magnús

notes

[2, 3] harri Skônunga; allvaldr Lundar ‘ruler of the Skánungar [= Magnús]; overlord of Lund [= Magnús]’: These must refer to the victorious Magnús, who claimed supremacy over Skåne (Skáney), now in southern Sweden, but formerly part of the Dan. territories (cf. Magn 9, where í Danmǫrku ‘in Denmark’ and of Skáney ‘across Skåne’ are juxtaposed. Lund (from ON lundr m. ‘grove’) is one of the largest and oldest centres of population in Skåne. That it was Magnús who got a saurstokkinn svíra ‘mud-spattered neck’ (i.e. was spattered right up to the neck) might seem undignified, but taken together with ll. 3-4 this seems to suggest that he stopped at nothing, hacking through bogs to pursue his enemy and defend his perceived rights.

Close

undrs ‘it is a wonder’

2. undr (noun n.; °-s; -): wonder, marvel

[3] undrs (‘undr er’): verðr 39, F, vátr H, Hr

Close

nema ‘unless’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[3] nema allvaldr Lundar: sem veigðu skauti H, Hr

Close

allvaldr ‘overlord’

allvaldr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): mighty ruler

[3] nema allvaldr Lundar: sem veigðu skauti H, Hr

kennings

aldrprúðr allvaldr Lundar
‘the life-splendid overlord of Lund ’
   = Magnús

the life-splendid overlord of Lund → Magnús

notes

[2, 3] harri Skônunga; allvaldr Lundar ‘ruler of the Skánungar [= Magnús]; overlord of Lund [= Magnús]’: These must refer to the victorious Magnús, who claimed supremacy over Skåne (Skáney), now in southern Sweden, but formerly part of the Dan. territories (cf. Magn 9, where í Danmǫrku ‘in Denmark’ and of Skáney ‘across Skåne’ are juxtaposed. Lund (from ON lundr m. ‘grove’) is one of the largest and oldest centres of population in Skåne. That it was Magnús who got a saurstokkinn svíra ‘mud-spattered neck’ (i.e. was spattered right up to the neck) might seem undignified, but taken together with ll. 3-4 this seems to suggest that he stopped at nothing, hacking through bogs to pursue his enemy and defend his perceived rights.

Close

Lundar ‘of Lund’

Lundr (noun f.): [Lund]

[3] nema allvaldr Lundar: sem veigðu skauti H, Hr;    Lundar: ‘vndar’ 39, yrði F

kennings

aldrprúðr allvaldr Lundar
‘the life-splendid overlord of Lund ’
   = Magnús

the life-splendid overlord of Lund → Magnús

notes

[2, 3] harri Skônunga; allvaldr Lundar ‘ruler of the Skánungar [= Magnús]; overlord of Lund [= Magnús]’: These must refer to the victorious Magnús, who claimed supremacy over Skåne (Skáney), now in southern Sweden, but formerly part of the Dan. territories (cf. Magn 9, where í Danmǫrku ‘in Denmark’ and of Skáney ‘across Skåne’ are juxtaposed. Lund (from ON lundr m. ‘grove’) is one of the largest and oldest centres of population in Skåne. That it was Magnús who got a saurstokkinn svíra ‘mud-spattered neck’ (i.e. was spattered right up to the neck) might seem undignified, but taken together with ll. 3-4 this seems to suggest that he stopped at nothing, hacking through bogs to pursue his enemy and defend his perceived rights.

Close

aldr ‘the life’

aldr (noun m.; °aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar): life, age < aldrprúðr (adj.)

[4] aldrprúðr: ‘allde pruðr’ E, ‘valldrvðr’ H, Hr

kennings

aldrprúðr allvaldr Lundar
‘the life-splendid overlord of Lund ’
   = Magnús

the life-splendid overlord of Lund → Magnús
Close

prúðr ‘splendid’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud < aldrprúðr (adj.)

[4] aldrprúðr: ‘allde pruðr’ E, ‘valldrvðr’ H, Hr

kennings

aldrprúðr allvaldr Lundar
‘the life-splendid overlord of Lund ’
   = Magnús

the life-splendid overlord of Lund → Magnús
Close

fyrir ‘out’

fyrir (prep.): for, before, because of

notes

[4] halda fyrir ‘holds out’: This seems to be a rare absolute use of halda, with adverbial fyrir, cf. halda e-u fyrir e-m/e-u ‘withhold sth. from sby/sth., protect against’ (cf. Fritzner: halda 9). The thought may be specifically ‘hold (the land against Sveinn / the enemy)’, as suggested in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B.

Close

haldi ‘holds’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[4] haldi: halda F

notes

[4] halda fyrir ‘holds out’: This seems to be a rare absolute use of halda, with adverbial fyrir, cf. halda e-u fyrir e-m/e-u ‘withhold sth. from sby/sth., protect against’ (cf. Fritzner: halda 9). The thought may be specifically ‘hold (the land against Sveinn / the enemy)’, as suggested in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Skj B.

Close

Gær ‘yesterday’

gær (adv.): [Yesterday]

[5] Gær: ‘ger’ 39, J2ˣ, ‘ser’ E, ‘gíær’ H, geirr Hr

Close

flugu ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

notes

[5] flugu ‘flew’: This could be construed with merki jarls, the noun phrase closest to it (so Fms 12), but the present arrangement gives the best sense and is adopted by most eds.

Close

mold ‘earth’

mold (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u; -ir): earth, soil

[5] mold: ‘mǫlld’ E

Close

jarls ‘jarl’

jarl (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): poet, earl

[6] jarls: so F, E, J2ˣ, H, Hr, ‘I.’ Kˣ, ‘J.’ 39

Close

ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

Close

sterkja ‘powerful’

sterkr (adj.): strong

[6] sterkja (‘sterka’): sterki E

Close

slóð ‘a track’

slóð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path, track

[7] slóð drap: ‘stoð dreif’ H, Hr

Close

drap ‘beat’

drepa (verb; °drepr; drap, drápu; drepinn): kill, strike

[7] slóð drap: ‘stoð dreif’ H, Hr

Close

flóði ‘the sea’

2. flóð (noun n.): flood

[7] flóði: flæði Hr

Close

flaugar ‘Flighted’

flaug (noun f.): flight < flaugardǫrr (noun m.)

notes

[8] flaugardǫrr ‘flighted spears’: Flaug f. means both abstract ‘flight’ and ‘(weather)vane’; in skaldic poetry it usually occurs with a word for ‘missile’ in the gen. pl., e. g. Vígf Hák l. 8I flaug darra ‘flight of spears’ or Hfr ErfÓl 4/3I flaug brodda ‘flight of points’. Here the cpd is the other way around, and the meaning might be ‘spear with a pennant’ or simply ‘flying spear’, i.e. ‘throwing spear’ (so LP (1860): flaug; Hkr 1893-1901, IV and subsequent eds).

Close

dǫrr ‘spears’

dǫrr (noun m.): spear < flaugardǫrr (noun m.)

notes

[8] flaugardǫrr ‘flighted spears’: Flaug f. means both abstract ‘flight’ and ‘(weather)vane’; in skaldic poetry it usually occurs with a word for ‘missile’ in the gen. pl., e. g. Vígf Hák l. 8I flaug darra ‘flight of spears’ or Hfr ErfÓl 4/3I flaug brodda ‘flight of points’. Here the cpd is the other way around, and the meaning might be ‘spear with a pennant’ or simply ‘flying spear’, i.e. ‘throwing spear’ (so LP (1860): flaug; Hkr 1893-1901, IV and subsequent eds).

Close

of ‘across’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[8] of hauga ‘across the hills’: Haugr can refer either to a natural hill or a burial mound, and the phrase could be taken with either of the clauses in the second helmingr. The arrangement adopted here is also that of the eds listed above. The same phrase recurs in st. 9, again referring to Skåne.

Close

hauga ‘the hills’

haugr (noun m.; °-s, -i; -ar): mound, cairn

[8] hauga: augu H

notes

[8] of hauga ‘across the hills’: Haugr can refer either to a natural hill or a burial mound, and the phrase could be taken with either of the clauses in the second helmingr. The arrangement adopted here is also that of the eds listed above. The same phrase recurs in st. 9, again referring to Skåne.

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