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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 22I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 48.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
212223

frá ‘learned’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[1] Þat frá: om. F

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hverr ‘Everyone’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[1] hverr: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, hyrr Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, 761aˣ

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sǫk ‘’

sǫk (noun f.; °sakar; sakar/sakir): cause, offence < sǫkmiðlandi (noun m.)

[3] sǫk‑: so papp18ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, 761aˣ, sǫkk‑ Kˣ, 521ˣ, F

notes

[3] sǫkmiðlendr ‘the mediators’: This, the J reading, is adopted in most previous eds. It is a cpd of sǫk f. ‘lawsuit, case, cause’ and an agent noun from miðla ‘share’; Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) compares OIcel. miðla mál ‘to mediate in a lawsuit’. The exact implications of the term here are unclear. The reading of and F, søkkmiðlendr, adopted in Hkr 1991, could be a standard kenning ‘dealers of wealth [GENEROUS MEN]’, if the existence of an ON word *sǫkk/søkk ‘wealth, treasure’ is accepted, but this is uncertain: see Note to st. 2/10 above.

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miðlendr ‘the mediators’

miðlandi (noun m.): sharer, mediator < sǫkmiðlandi (noun m.)miðlandi (noun m.): sharer, mediator < sǫkkmiðlandi (noun m.)

notes

[3] sǫkmiðlendr ‘the mediators’: This, the J reading, is adopted in most previous eds. It is a cpd of sǫk f. ‘lawsuit, case, cause’ and an agent noun from miðla ‘share’; Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) compares OIcel. miðla mál ‘to mediate in a lawsuit’. The exact implications of the term here are unclear. The reading of and F, søkkmiðlendr, adopted in Hkr 1991, could be a standard kenning ‘dealers of wealth [GENEROUS MEN]’, if the existence of an ON word *sǫkk/søkk ‘wealth, treasure’ is accepted, but this is uncertain: see Note to st. 2/10 above.

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sakna ‘feel the loss’

sakna (verb): miss, feel loss

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Ok ‘And’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] Ok: ok at F

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hallvarps ‘of the cairn’

hallvarp (noun n.): [cairn]

[5] hallvarps: Hallvarðs J2ˣ

kennings

hlífi-Nauma hallvarps
‘the protecting Nauma of the cairn ’
   = Hel

the protecting Nauma of the cairn → Hel

notes

[5-6] hlífi-Nauma hallvarps ‘the protecting Nauma <goddess> of the cairn [= Hel]’: Hel, goddess of death, also features in st. 7. Nauma appears to be a goddess or giantess, whose name occurs as the base-word in woman-kennings: see Note to Ótt Lv 3/8. The gen. hallvarps ‘of the cairn’ is to be understood as the object of the verbal element hlífi ‘protecting’ which is attached to Nauma. The hap. leg. hallvarp, lit. ‘stone-throwing’ is best interpreted as ‘heap of stones, cairn’ (so Wadstein 1895a, 76 and subsequent eds); Falk (1923, 78) compares New Norw. varp, verp ‘heap of stones commemorating an event, cairn’. Although no other source associates Hel with a cairn, such an association is plausible given the use of cairns in burials or as commemorative monuments.

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hlífi ‘the protecting’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence < hlífinauma (noun f.)

kennings

hlífi-Nauma hallvarps
‘the protecting Nauma of the cairn ’
   = Hel

the protecting Nauma of the cairn → Hel

notes

[5-6] hlífi-Nauma hallvarps ‘the protecting Nauma <goddess> of the cairn [= Hel]’: Hel, goddess of death, also features in st. 7. Nauma appears to be a goddess or giantess, whose name occurs as the base-word in woman-kennings: see Note to Ótt Lv 3/8. The gen. hallvarps ‘of the cairn’ is to be understood as the object of the verbal element hlífi ‘protecting’ which is attached to Nauma. The hap. leg. hallvarp, lit. ‘stone-throwing’ is best interpreted as ‘heap of stones, cairn’ (so Wadstein 1895a, 76 and subsequent eds); Falk (1923, 78) compares New Norw. varp, verp ‘heap of stones commemorating an event, cairn’. Although no other source associates Hel with a cairn, such an association is plausible given the use of cairns in burials or as commemorative monuments.

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Nauma ‘Nauma’

Nauma (noun f.): Nauma < hlífinauma (noun f.)

kennings

hlífi-Nauma hallvarps
‘the protecting Nauma of the cairn ’
   = Hel

the protecting Nauma of the cairn → Hel

notes

[5-6] hlífi-Nauma hallvarps ‘the protecting Nauma <goddess> of the cairn [= Hel]’: Hel, goddess of death, also features in st. 7. Nauma appears to be a goddess or giantess, whose name occurs as the base-word in woman-kennings: see Note to Ótt Lv 3/8. The gen. hallvarps ‘of the cairn’ is to be understood as the object of the verbal element hlífi ‘protecting’ which is attached to Nauma. The hap. leg. hallvarp, lit. ‘stone-throwing’ is best interpreted as ‘heap of stones, cairn’ (so Wadstein 1895a, 76 and subsequent eds); Falk (1923, 78) compares New Norw. varp, verp ‘heap of stones commemorating an event, cairn’. Although no other source associates Hel with a cairn, such an association is plausible given the use of cairns in burials or as commemorative monuments.

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Skæreið ‘Skæreið’

Skæreið (noun f.): Skæreið

[9] Skæreið: skereið F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

notes

[9] Skæreið: It is generally assumed that Skæreið is the subject of drúpir ‘droops, mourns’ and refers to a place (see LP: drúpa 1 for parallels), though it cannot be identified with any known place. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: Skereið) suggests that the name is a cpd of sker ‘skerry’ and eið ‘point, isthmus’. This would seem incompatible with the localisation in Skíringssalr, since the site of the hall (salr) is not on the coast but inland. But the name Skíringssalr may even at an early date have referred to the district controlled by it (cf. Brink 2007b, 60-2 and Note to l. 10 below).

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Skíris ‘’

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Skírings ‘Skírings’

skíring (noun f.; °-ar): skíring < Skíringssalr (noun m.)

[10] Skírings‑: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, ‘Skíris‑’ Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[10] Skíringssal ‘Skíringssalr’: The first known written evidence for the p. n. is in the OE Ælfredian Orosius (late C9th), where it is called Sciringes heale ‘Sciring’s haugh/hale’ (Bately 2008, 47, 55). The second element appears to be the dat. sg. of OE h(e)alh ‘a nook of land, a corner of land, a water-meadow’ (Smith 1956, I, 223), but it could be a spelling or a substitution for OE heall ‘hall’, which would correspond with ON salr ‘hall’. During the Middle Ages Skíringssalr was the name of a district in Vestfold called Tjølling today (Storm 1899, 113; Hkr 1893-1901, IV). Excavations between 1999 and 2001 revealed a man-made plateau north of the old commercial centre Kaupang. It is the site of a very large building measuring 9-10m by 32-34m, and accompanying artefacts indicate that it was the hall of a Viking-Age ruler. The layout corresponds to that of C8th halls from the Mälaren region inspired by the great C7th hall in (Gamla) Uppsala (Skre and Stylegar 2004, 65-71; Skre 2007b, 426-7). Skíringssalr is at present the only known hall site of this kind outside the Mälaren region, which may suggest that it was a direct imitation of the Uppsala hall.

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sal ‘salr’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < Skíringssalr (noun m.)1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

notes

[10] Skíringssal ‘Skíringssalr’: The first known written evidence for the p. n. is in the OE Ælfredian Orosius (late C9th), where it is called Sciringes heale ‘Sciring’s haugh/hale’ (Bately 2008, 47, 55). The second element appears to be the dat. sg. of OE h(e)alh ‘a nook of land, a corner of land, a water-meadow’ (Smith 1956, I, 223), but it could be a spelling or a substitution for OE heall ‘hall’, which would correspond with ON salr ‘hall’. During the Middle Ages Skíringssalr was the name of a district in Vestfold called Tjølling today (Storm 1899, 113; Hkr 1893-1901, IV). Excavations between 1999 and 2001 revealed a man-made plateau north of the old commercial centre Kaupang. It is the site of a very large building measuring 9-10m by 32-34m, and accompanying artefacts indicate that it was the hall of a Viking-Age ruler. The layout corresponds to that of C8th halls from the Mälaren region inspired by the great C7th hall in (Gamla) Uppsala (Skre and Stylegar 2004, 65-71; Skre 2007b, 426-7). Skíringssalr is at present the only known hall site of this kind outside the Mälaren region, which may suggest that it was a direct imitation of the Uppsala hall.

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alfs ‘elf’

alfr (noun m.; °; -ar): elf < brynjalfr (noun m.)

[11] ‑alfs: ‑alfr F

kennings

brynjalfs
‘of the mailcoat-elf ’
   = WARRIOR

the mailcoat-elf → WARRIOR
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Hálfdan hvítbeinn ‘White-bone’, son of Óláfr trételgja ‘Wood-cutter’, is king of Heiðmǫrk (Hedmark) and extends his rule to Þótn (Toten), Haðaland (Hadeland) and Vestfold. He lives to a great age before dying of an illness in Þótn, and is buried in a mound in Vestfold.

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