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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 12I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 28.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
111213

Varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[1, 3] varð of lattr lífs ‘was deprived of his life’: Lattr is taken here as the p. p. of letja ‘dissuade, hinder’ (so also Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald, ÍF 26 and Åkerlund 1939, 93). Wadstein (1895a, 68-9) and Noreen (Yt 1925) propose interpretations based on látr (‘latr’ in J2ˣ, R685ˣ) as equivalent to látinn, p. p. of láta ‘to let’, and forming the cpd lífslátr ‘life-deprived, dead, slain’, but these are unconvincing.

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Jǫrundr ‘Jǫrundr’

Jǫrundr (noun m.): Jǫrundr

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lífs ‘of his life’

líf (noun n.; °-s; -): life

notes

[1, 3] varð of lattr lífs ‘was deprived of his life’: Lattr is taken here as the p. p. of letja ‘dissuade, hinder’ (so also Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald, ÍF 26 and Åkerlund 1939, 93). Wadstein (1895a, 68-9) and Noreen (Yt 1925) propose interpretations based on látr (‘latr’ in J2ˣ, R685ˣ) as equivalent to látinn, p. p. of láta ‘to let’, and forming the cpd lífslátr ‘life-deprived, dead, slain’, but these are unconvincing.

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of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

notes

[1, 3] varð of lattr lífs ‘was deprived of his life’: Lattr is taken here as the p. p. of letja ‘dissuade, hinder’ (so also Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald, ÍF 26 and Åkerlund 1939, 93). Wadstein (1895a, 68-9) and Noreen (Yt 1925) propose interpretations based on látr (‘latr’ in J2ˣ, R685ˣ) as equivalent to látinn, p. p. of láta ‘to let’, and forming the cpd lífslátr ‘life-deprived, dead, slain’, but these are unconvincing.

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látr ‘’

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lattr ‘deprived’

letja (verb): deprive

[3] lattr: latr J2ˣ, R685ˣ

notes

[1, 3] varð of lattr lífs ‘was deprived of his life’: Lattr is taken here as the p. p. of letja ‘dissuade, hinder’ (so also Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald, ÍF 26 and Åkerlund 1939, 93). Wadstein (1895a, 68-9) and Noreen (Yt 1925) propose interpretations based on látr (‘latr’ in J2ˣ, R685ˣ) as equivalent to látinn, p. p. of láta ‘to let’, and forming the cpd lífslátr ‘life-deprived, dead, slain’, but these are unconvincing.

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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bjóstr ‘’

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‘the high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high < hábrjóstr (adj.)3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva
‘the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords ’
   = GALLOWS

the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords → GALLOWS

notes

[5-6] hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva ‘the high-breasted Sleipnir <horse> of flax cords [GALLOWS]’: The base-word of this kenning, Sleipnir, is explained in terms of the idiomatic expression ‘to ride the gallows’, cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. As the determinant, (a) most previous eds also adopt the reading hǫrva ‘of flax cords’ based on , and Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) refers to Egill Hfl 13/7V, where hǫrvar denotes bowstrings. (b) Wadstein (1895a, 68-9), however, followed by Noreen (Yt 1925) prioritizes the reading hurfu (J2ˣ), which he interprets as gen. sg. of *hvarfa according to ANG §77.10. In explanation he refers to Swed. dialectal hurfa, horfa and Norw. korve, kverva ‘withy’, a ring of willow. This is worthy of consideration in light of the fact that it was common to use a withy in hangings (Amira 1913, 241; ‘Hängen’, HDA, 3, 1438-1460). The assumption of Åkerlund (1939, 93) that a scribe had replaced a word unknown to him with hǫrva might also support this. Strangulation with a loop of twisted branches was probably the antecedent of the later practice of hanging with a rope noose (Amira 1922, 95-6).

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hurfa ‘’

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brjóstr ‘breasted’

-brjóstr (adj.): [breasted] < hábrjóstr (adj.)

[5] ‑brjóstr: ‘‑biostr’ F

kennings

hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva
‘the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords ’
   = GALLOWS

the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords → GALLOWS

notes

[5-6] hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva ‘the high-breasted Sleipnir <horse> of flax cords [GALLOWS]’: The base-word of this kenning, Sleipnir, is explained in terms of the idiomatic expression ‘to ride the gallows’, cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. As the determinant, (a) most previous eds also adopt the reading hǫrva ‘of flax cords’ based on , and Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) refers to Egill Hfl 13/7V, where hǫrvar denotes bowstrings. (b) Wadstein (1895a, 68-9), however, followed by Noreen (Yt 1925) prioritizes the reading hurfu (J2ˣ), which he interprets as gen. sg. of *hvarfa according to ANG §77.10. In explanation he refers to Swed. dialectal hurfa, horfa and Norw. korve, kverva ‘withy’, a ring of willow. This is worthy of consideration in light of the fact that it was common to use a withy in hangings (Amira 1913, 241; ‘Hängen’, HDA, 3, 1438-1460). The assumption of Åkerlund (1939, 93) that a scribe had replaced a word unknown to him with hǫrva might also support this. Strangulation with a loop of twisted branches was probably the antecedent of the later practice of hanging with a rope noose (Amira 1922, 95-6).

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hǫrva ‘of flax cords’

hǫrr (noun m.): linen

[6] hǫrva: hǫrpu F, ‘hurfa’ J2ˣ, hurfu R685ˣ

kennings

hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva
‘the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords ’
   = GALLOWS

the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords → GALLOWS

notes

[5-6] hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva ‘the high-breasted Sleipnir <horse> of flax cords [GALLOWS]’: The base-word of this kenning, Sleipnir, is explained in terms of the idiomatic expression ‘to ride the gallows’, cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. As the determinant, (a) most previous eds also adopt the reading hǫrva ‘of flax cords’ based on , and Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) refers to Egill Hfl 13/7V, where hǫrvar denotes bowstrings. (b) Wadstein (1895a, 68-9), however, followed by Noreen (Yt 1925) prioritizes the reading hurfu (J2ˣ), which he interprets as gen. sg. of *hvarfa according to ANG §77.10. In explanation he refers to Swed. dialectal hurfa, horfa and Norw. korve, kverva ‘withy’, a ring of willow. This is worthy of consideration in light of the fact that it was common to use a withy in hangings (Amira 1913, 241; ‘Hängen’, HDA, 3, 1438-1460). The assumption of Åkerlund (1939, 93) that a scribe had replaced a word unknown to him with hǫrva might also support this. Strangulation with a loop of twisted branches was probably the antecedent of the later practice of hanging with a rope noose (Amira 1922, 95-6).

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Sleipnir ‘Sleipnir’

Sleipnir (noun m.): Sleipnir

kennings

hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva
‘the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords ’
   = GALLOWS

the high-breasted Sleipnir of flax cords → GALLOWS

notes

[5-6] hábrjóstr Sleipnir hǫrva ‘the high-breasted Sleipnir <horse> of flax cords [GALLOWS]’: The base-word of this kenning, Sleipnir, is explained in terms of the idiomatic expression ‘to ride the gallows’, cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. As the determinant, (a) most previous eds also adopt the reading hǫrva ‘of flax cords’ based on , and Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) refers to Egill Hfl 13/7V, where hǫrvar denotes bowstrings. (b) Wadstein (1895a, 68-9), however, followed by Noreen (Yt 1925) prioritizes the reading hurfu (J2ˣ), which he interprets as gen. sg. of *hvarfa according to ANG §77.10. In explanation he refers to Swed. dialectal hurfa, horfa and Norw. korve, kverva ‘withy’, a ring of willow. This is worthy of consideration in light of the fact that it was common to use a withy in hangings (Amira 1913, 241; ‘Hängen’, HDA, 3, 1438-1460). The assumption of Åkerlund (1939, 93) that a scribe had replaced a word unknown to him with hǫrva might also support this. Strangulation with a loop of twisted branches was probably the antecedent of the later practice of hanging with a rope noose (Amira 1922, 95-6).

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bana ‘the slayer’

bani (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death, killer

kennings

bana Goðlaugs.
‘the slayer of Guðlaugr. ’
   = Jǫrundr

the slayer of Guðlaugr. → Jǫrundr

notes

[7] bana Goðlaugs ‘the slayer of Guðlaugr [= Jǫrundr]’: Guðlaugr belongs to the dynasty of jarls of Hálogaland (Hålogaland) and later of Hlaðir (Lade); whether he was a king as claimed in Yng (see Context) is doubtful. He is the subject of Eyv Hál 4-5, which report that he was hanged by the sons of Yngvi on Straumeyrarnes (or Straumeyjarnes).

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Goðlaugs ‘of Guðlaugr’

Goðlaugr (noun m.): [Guðlaugr]

kennings

bana Goðlaugs.
‘the slayer of Guðlaugr. ’
   = Jǫrundr

the slayer of Guðlaugr. → Jǫrundr

notes

[7] bana Goðlaugs ‘the slayer of Guðlaugr [= Jǫrundr]’: Guðlaugr belongs to the dynasty of jarls of Hálogaland (Hålogaland) and later of Hlaðir (Lade); whether he was a king as claimed in Yng (see Context) is doubtful. He is the subject of Eyv Hál 4-5, which report that he was hanged by the sons of Yngvi on Straumeyrarnes (or Straumeyjarnes).

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Hag ‘of Hag’

(unknown) < Hagbarðr (noun m.): Hagbarðr(unknown) < Hagbarðr (noun m.): Hagbarðr

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

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barðs ‘barðr’

Bárðr (noun m.): [Bárðr, barðr] < Hagbarðr (noun m.): Hagbarðr

[9] ‑barðs: ‑barðr R685ˣ

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

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hersa ‘of hersar

hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan

[10] hersa: ok hersa R685ˣ

kennings

valdi hersa.
‘of the lord of hersar. ’
   = KING

the lord of hersar. → KING
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valdi ‘of the lord’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

valdi hersa.
‘of the lord of hersar. ’
   = KING

the lord of hersar. → KING
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hǫðnu ‘of the kid’

haðna (noun f.; °; *-ur): [kid, nanny-goat]

[11] hǫðnu: hǫðnum 521ˣ, auðnu F

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

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hǫðnu ‘of the kid’

haðna (noun f.; °; *-ur): [kid, nanny-goat]

[11] hǫðnu: hǫðnum 521ˣ, auðnu F

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

Close

leif ‘the remnant’

leif (noun f.; °; -ar): [remnant]

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

Close

leif ‘the remnant’

leif (noun f.; °; -ar): [remnant]

kennings

leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs
‘the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr ’
   = NOOSE

the remnant of the kid of Hagbarðr → NOOSE

notes

[9, 11] leif hǫðnu Hagbarðs ‘the remnant of the kid [LEATHER STRAP] of Hagbarðr <Danish legendary hero> [NOOSE]’: This is one of the few cases where the base-word of a kenning is itself replaced with a kenning (see ‘The diction of skaldic poetry’ in General Introduction). Haðna is the female kid or young goat, whose ‘remnant’ is the leather out of which the strap is produced. Hagbarðr figures in Danish heroic legend as a victim of hanging; cf. Note to st. 9/10, 11-12. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) seeks to trace this kenning to a forgotten detail of the Hagbarðr legend.

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Jǫrundr and Eiríkr, the sons of Yngvi, encounter Guðlaugr, king of Hálogaland (Hålogaland), while raiding in Denmark. They defeat him in battle and hang him from the gallows at Straumeyrarnes. When Jǫrundr once again invades Denmark, he is confronted by Gýlaugr, son of Guðlaugr, who defeats him with the help of local Danes. He is then hanged also.

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