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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þham Magndr 3II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Þorkell hamarskáld, Magnússdrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 411-12.

Þorkell hamarskáldMagnússdrápa
234

brynju ‘the byrnie’

1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

[1] brynju: brynjur H, Hr, J2ˣ, 325III α, R702ˣ

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sveigði ‘bent’

sveigja (verb): bend

[3] sveigði: ‘suegðe’ E, ‘svegði’ J2ˣ, ‘svæghde’ FskAˣ

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all ‘the’

all- ((prefix)): very < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty ruler

kennings

allvaldr Egða
‘the mighty ruler of the Egðir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the mighty ruler of the Egðir → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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valdr ‘mighty ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty ruler

[3] ‑valdr: ‑vald H

kennings

allvaldr Egða
‘the mighty ruler of the Egðir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the mighty ruler of the Egðir → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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Egða ‘of the Egðir’

Egðir (noun m.): the Egðir

kennings

allvaldr Egða
‘the mighty ruler of the Egðir ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the mighty ruler of the Egðir → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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Strengs ‘of the bow-string’

strengr (noun m.; °-jar; -ir): string, rope, bow-string

[5] Strengs: so all others, ‘stengs’ Mork

kennings

Hagl strengs
‘The hail of the bow-string ’
   = ARROWS

The hail of the bow-string → ARROWS
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fló ‘flew’

fljúga (verb): fly

[5] fló: flaug FskBˣ

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hagl ‘The hail’

hagl (noun n.; °-s; dat. *-um): hail

kennings

Hagl strengs
‘The hail of the bow-string ’
   = ARROWS

The hail of the bow-string → ARROWS
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í ‘into’

í (prep.): in, into

[5] í: so F, Kˣ, 39, E, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, 325III α, R702ˣ, á Mork, H, Hr, í corrected from á J2ˣ, 42ˣ

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hné ‘fell’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

[6] hné: ‘hve’ 42ˣ

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Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

[7] Hǫrða: hǫrð þá er 42ˣ

kennings

gramr Hǫrða
‘the lord of the Hǫrðar ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the lord of the Hǫrðar → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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gramr ‘the lord’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

gramr Hǫrða
‘the lord of the Hǫrðar ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the lord of the Hǫrðar → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
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hjarl ‘battle’

hjarl (noun n.): land < hjarlsókn (noun n.)

[8] hjarl‑: hjarls H, hjǫrs FskBˣ

notes

[8] hjarlsókn ‘battle for land’: Lit. ‘land-battle’ (hap. leg.). All sources agree that Magnús shot from his ship, hence the word is taken here to mean that Magnús fought to expand his dominions in the west. Alternatively, it could also be construed as ‘attack on the land’. Skj B separates the two elements of the cpd and takes hjarl ‘land’ with hringa ‘chain-mail’ (lit. ‘rings’) (l. 5): í hjarl hringa ‘into the land of rings’, i.e. ‘into the chain-mail’. That reading creates a very convoluted w. o. (see NN § 2908) and it is unnecessary because hringar ‘rings’ can denote ‘chain-mail, ring-byrnie’. See Note to SnH Lv 1/3 and LP: hringr 2.

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sókn ‘ for land’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < hjarlsókn (noun n.)

[8] ‑sókn: ‘skaull’ Hr

notes

[8] hjarlsókn ‘battle for land’: Lit. ‘land-battle’ (hap. leg.). All sources agree that Magnús shot from his ship, hence the word is taken here to mean that Magnús fought to expand his dominions in the west. Alternatively, it could also be construed as ‘attack on the land’. Skj B separates the two elements of the cpd and takes hjarl ‘land’ with hringa ‘chain-mail’ (lit. ‘rings’) (l. 5): í hjarl hringa ‘into the land of rings’, i.e. ‘into the chain-mail’. That reading creates a very convoluted w. o. (see NN § 2908) and it is unnecessary because hringar ‘rings’ can denote ‘chain-mail, ring-byrnie’. See Note to SnH Lv 1/3 and LP: hringr 2.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Magnús killed Earl Hugh of Shrewsbury (Hugi inn prúði ‘the Proud’) at the battle of the Menai Strait, between northern Wales and Anglesey, in 1098.

For this battle, see Bkrepp Magndr 11 and Gísl Magnkv 10-13. See also Power 1986, 109-11 and the literature cited there.

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