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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sturl Hryn 16II

Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir (ed.) 2009, ‘Sturla Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 16’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 693-4.

Sturla ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
151617

Ærin ‘a great’

œrinn (adj.): ample, sufficient

[1] Ærin: Errin 81a, Flat

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færi ‘travelled’

fara (verb; ferr, fór, fóru, farinn): go, travel

[1] færi: væri E

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inn ‘in’

1. inn (adv.): in, inside

[2] inn um: so all others, innan F

notes

[2] inn um borð ‘in over the gunwale’: F has the reading innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’. It seems more natural that the waves were thrown over the gunwale, rather than thrown about inside it, so the reading of the other mss has been chosen here, as in Skj B and Skald. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 80) followed the reading of F, innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’, but says in his notes that the reading of the other mss is better.

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um ‘over’

1. um (prep.): about, around

[2] inn um: so all others, innan F

notes

[2] inn um borð ‘in over the gunwale’: F has the reading innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’. It seems more natural that the waves were thrown over the gunwale, rather than thrown about inside it, so the reading of the other mss has been chosen here, as in Skj B and Skald. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 80) followed the reading of F, innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’, but says in his notes that the reading of the other mss is better.

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borð ‘the gunwale’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[2] borð: so all others, borðs F

notes

[2] inn um borð ‘in over the gunwale’: F has the reading innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’. It seems more natural that the waves were thrown over the gunwale, rather than thrown about inside it, so the reading of the other mss has been chosen here, as in Skj B and Skald. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 80) followed the reading of F, innanborðs ‘inside the gunwale’, but says in his notes that the reading of the other mss is better.

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á ‘across’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á lægi: ‘alegi’ E, ‘al ægi’ G, ‘a legí’ 8, ‘ꜳ legi’ Flat

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lægi ‘the sea’

lægi (noun n.; °-s): sea

[2] á lægi: ‘alegi’ E, ‘al ægi’ G, ‘a legí’ 8, ‘ꜳ legi’ Flat

notes

[2] lægi ‘sea’: The scribes of F, 81a and G write ‘lægi’ but the scribes of E, Flat and 8 write ‘legi’. The long vowels [æ] and [œ] coalesced shortly before 1250. Many Icelandic scribes wrote <æ> for [e] in the C13-14th following the example of Norw. scribes (Stefán Karlsson 2000, 52, 175). Norw. influence on the orthography is clearly evident in both F and E. Lægi could therefore be the dat. of lögr (m. sg.) ‘sea’ or lœgir (m. sg.) ‘sea’, originally probably meaning ‘the still one’ or ‘the quiet one’ (ÍO).

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

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öldum ‘waves’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[3] öldum: öllum E, G

notes

[3] öldum varp ‘waves were thrown’: The verb is used impersonally with öldum (f. dat. pl.) as the object.

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varp ‘were thrown’

1. verpa (verb): to throw, cast (up)

notes

[3] öldum varp ‘waves were thrown’: The verb is used impersonally with öldum (f. dat. pl.) as the object.

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húfum ‘the hulls’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

[3] húfum: ‘hofum’ G

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helduð ‘you brought’

halda (verb): hold, keep

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hilmis ‘of the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

kundr hilmis,
‘son of the ruler, ’
   = Hákon

son of the ruler, → Hákon
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kundr ‘son’

kundr (noun m.): descendant

[4] kundr: kunnr G

kennings

kundr hilmis,
‘son of the ruler, ’
   = Hákon

son of the ruler, → Hákon
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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

[4] til: om. E, G

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jörmungrundar ‘the vast land’

jǫrmungrund (noun f.): huge/vast (expanse of) land

[4] jörmungrundar: ‘juarmun nordan’ G, jarmangrundar 81a, danskrar grundar Flat

notes

[4] jörmungrundar ‘vast land’: Flat has the reading danskrar grundar ‘the Danish lands’, which is accurate as the fleet was heading to Halland (which was under Dan. rule), but it is clearly a lectio facilior. The prefix jörmun- implies something vast or great and occurs in words such as Jǫrmungandr ‘the Midgard serpent’ (CVC). See also the inscription on the Karlevi stone (Run Öl1/7VI).

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Víða ‘far and wide’

1. víða (adv.): widely

[5] Víða: so E, G, Flat, Vinda F, 81a, 8

notes

[5] þurðu víða ‘raced far and wide’: 81a has the reading þorðu vinda ‘dared to turn’ which is possible but clearly secondary. G is the only ms. which has the reading þurðu víða ‘raced far and wide’. F also has þurðu, E, 81a and 8 þorðu ‘dared’, and Flat has snuddu, 3rd pers. pl. pret. indic. of the verb snyðja ‘speed’. Þurðu is the pret. of the verb þyrja ‘sweep, rush along’.

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þurðu ‘raced’

þyrja (verb): race, rush, rage

[5] þurðu: þorðu E, 81a, 8, ‘snuddu’ Flat

notes

[5] þurðu víða ‘raced far and wide’: 81a has the reading þorðu vinda ‘dared to turn’ which is possible but clearly secondary. G is the only ms. which has the reading þurðu víða ‘raced far and wide’. F also has þurðu, E, 81a and 8 þorðu ‘dared’, and Flat has snuddu, 3rd pers. pl. pret. indic. of the verb snyðja ‘speed’. Þurðu is the pret. of the verb þyrja ‘sweep, rush along’.

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vísa ‘of the leader’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

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ferðar ‘of the troop’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[5] ferðar: ferðir G

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flaust ‘ships’

flaust (noun n.): ship

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geiga ‘drift’

geiga (verb): [drift, swung]

[7] geiga: geisa 81a

notes

[7] geiga ‘drift’: It seems strange that the ships that were racing are now drifting rather aimlessly to and fro. Konráð Gíslason thought geiga might mean svífa ‘drift, float’, describing the movement of the ships on the water (Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 81; CVC). The reading in 81a, geisa ‘rush’, is a more natural continuation of the previous couplet where the fleet rushes on towards Halland, but the other ms. witnesses show that it is secondary, and it leaves the l. without internal rhyme (also note the rhyme -eig- : -ýj-; see ANG §251). For geiga, see also Note to Sturl Hákkv 32/8.

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létuð ‘you let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[7] létuð: leituð E, létu 81a

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gyltar ‘gilded’

2. -gyltr (adj.): [gilded]

[7] gyltar: gyldar 81a, Flat

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sýjur ‘ships’

1. sýja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): planking, vessel

[7] sýjur: ‘sygiur’ E, Flat

notes

[7] sýjur (f. nom. sg. sÿja) ‘ships’: This lit. means ‘suture’, referring to the method of joining the boards, súð (f. nom. sg.), by lashing them together. Súð and sýja are both used as pars pro toto for ‘ship’.

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grundar ‘of the land’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

vörðr grundar,
‘defender of the land, ’
   = KING

defender of the land, → KING
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vörðr ‘defender’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

vörðr grundar,
‘defender of the land, ’
   = KING

defender of the land, → KING
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Eyrarsundi ‘Øresund’

eyrarsund (noun n.; °; -): Øresund

[8] Eyrarsundi: Eyrasundi E, Flat, heyra G

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King Hákon sailed with 315 ships from Öckerö south through Øresund.

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