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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Steinn Óldr 5II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Steinn Herdísarson, Óláfsdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 371-2.

Steinn HerdísarsonÓláfsdrápa
456

Engla ‘of the English’

Englar (noun m.): English people

kennings

Ótvínn þrýstir Engla,
‘The unwavering oppressor of the English, ’
   = Óláfr

The unwavering oppressor of the English, → Óláfr
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þrýstir ‘oppressor’

þrýstir (noun m.): crusher

[1] þrýstir: þreystir Flat

kennings

Ótvínn þrýstir Engla,
‘The unwavering oppressor of the English, ’
   = Óláfr

The unwavering oppressor of the English, → Óláfr
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ótvínn ‘unwavering’

ótvínn (adj.): unwavering

[2] ótvínn: ‘otvín’ Mork, ‘ot vín’ Flat, ‘otvíns’ H, ‘ottvíns’ Hr

kennings

Ótvínn þrýstir Engla,
‘The unwavering oppressor of the English, ’
   = Óláfr

The unwavering oppressor of the English, → Óláfr

notes

[2] ótvínn ‘undivided, unwavering’: For a discussion of this word, see Nj 1875-8, II, 290-1, 374-5. See also Note to ÞjóðA Magnfl 18/2 and Þfisk Lv 2/2.

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liði ‘force’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

[2] liði sínu: skipum sínum Flat

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sínu ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[2] liði sínu: skipum sínum Flat

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braut ‘broke’

brjóta (verb; °brýtr; braut, brutu; brotinn): to break, destroy

notes

[3] braut ‘broke’: The verb is used impersonally with stóran straum ‘the heavy current’ (ll. 3, 4) as the object.

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‘sea-’

sjór (noun m.): sea < sækonungr (noun m.): [sea-kings]

[4] sæ‑: ‘sor’ Hr

kennings

sækonungr Rauma,
‘the sea-king of the Raumar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the sea-king of the Raumar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[4] sækonungr ‘the sea-king’: ‘sea’ can technically either go with straum (straumsæ ‘sea-flow’; otherwise unattested) or be taken as the first element of the cpd sækonungr ‘sea-king’ (a king who rules at sea; also attested in Þul Sækonunga 5/8III and Hyndl 17/4). Because the word is presented as a cpd in H, the latter interpretation seems preferable (so Skald). Skj B takes ‘sea’ with the first cl. (austr sæ ‘east of the sea’) and emends konungr (m. nom. sg.) ‘king’ to konungs (m. gen. sg.): braut stóran straum of stýri konungs Rauma ‘the heavy current broke around the helm of the king of the Raumar’, which creates an unprecedented tripartite l. and goes against the ms. witnesses (see NN §806, 890).

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konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king < sækonungr (noun m.): [sea-kings]

kennings

sækonungr Rauma,
‘the sea-king of the Raumar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the sea-king of the Raumar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[4] sækonungr ‘the sea-king’: ‘sea’ can technically either go with straum (straumsæ ‘sea-flow’; otherwise unattested) or be taken as the first element of the cpd sækonungr ‘sea-king’ (a king who rules at sea; also attested in Þul Sækonunga 5/8III and Hyndl 17/4). Because the word is presented as a cpd in H, the latter interpretation seems preferable (so Skald). Skj B takes ‘sea’ with the first cl. (austr sæ ‘east of the sea’) and emends konungr (m. nom. sg.) ‘king’ to konungs (m. gen. sg.): braut stóran straum of stýri konungs Rauma ‘the heavy current broke around the helm of the king of the Raumar’, which creates an unprecedented tripartite l. and goes against the ms. witnesses (see NN §806, 890).

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Rauma ‘of the Raumar’

2. Raumar (noun m.; °-s; -ar): the Raumar

kennings

sækonungr Rauma,
‘the sea-king of the Raumar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the sea-king of the Raumar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr
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tók ‘received’

2. taka (verb): take

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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heðra ‘here’

heðra (adv.): here

notes

[5] heðra ‘here’: Skj B again construes a tripartite l. with heðra as part of the first cl. (allt folk heðra ‘all people here’; see NN §890).

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hring ‘the ring-’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringlestir (noun m.)

[6] hring‑: hyr‑ Flat

kennings

hringlestir
‘the ring-damager ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the ring-damager → GENEROUS RULER
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lestir ‘damager’

lestir (noun m.): damager, destroyer < hringlestir (noun m.)

kennings

hringlestir
‘the ring-damager ’
   = GENEROUS RULER

the ring-damager → GENEROUS RULER
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vestan ‘from the west’

vestan (prep.): from the west

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allr ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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Óláfr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

notes

[8] Óláfr: The [o:] in the first syllable of this name is secured by internal rhyme (Ól- : -ól-; see also sts 12/8 and 14/8), and Óláfr rather than the more archaic láfr is used passim in this poem, unless otherwise noted (see Note to st. 7/6 below). It is clear that the quality of the nasalised was very unstable at this time (see ANG §116).

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As st. 4 above.

Óláfr returned to Norway from Orkney in 1067. — [8]: For this l. of the split refrain (klofastef), see Note to st. 1/8 above.

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