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Sigv Víkv 8I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 545.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonVíkingarvísur
789

Veitk ‘I know’

1. vita (verb): know

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víga ‘of battles’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

kennings

mœtir víga,
‘the meeter of battles, ’
   = WARRIOR

the meeter of battles, → WARRIOR
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mœtir ‘the meeter’

mœtir (noun m.): meeter

[1] mœtir: hneitir 325VI, 78aˣ, meitir 325V

kennings

mœtir víga,
‘the meeter of battles, ’
   = WARRIOR

the meeter of battles, → WARRIOR
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Vinðum ‘to Wends’

Vinðr (noun m.; °; vinðr/-ir): the Wends

[2] Vinðum: vǫndum 325VI, 73aˣ, vǫndu 78aˣ, virðum 61

notes

[2] háttr Vinðum ‘dangerous to Wends’: It is not known why Óláfr is described thus, as there is otherwise no mention of Wends in connection with his youthful battles, though his namesake Óláfr Tryggvason is said to have attacked the Wends (e.g. Hfr Óldr 1). Háttr is established as the form of the adj. by the rhyme on átt-. This is the only known occurrence (LP: háttr), but it is clearly related to the nouns háski and hætta, both ‘danger’, and is equivalent to the adj. hættr ‘dangerous’ as in ÞjóðA Sex 2/7II hættr Serkjum ‘dangerous to Serkir (Saracens)’ or Hfr Óldr 2/1, 2 hættr fjǫrvi Gota ‘dangerous to the life of the Gotar’.

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háttr ‘dangerous’

2. háttr (adj.): [dangerous]

[2] háttr: hátt 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325V, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, DG8, hættr 61, Bb, hóttr 325VII

notes

[2] háttr Vinðum ‘dangerous to Wends’: It is not known why Óláfr is described thus, as there is otherwise no mention of Wends in connection with his youthful battles, though his namesake Óláfr Tryggvason is said to have attacked the Wends (e.g. Hfr Óldr 1). Háttr is established as the form of the adj. by the rhyme on átt-. This is the only known occurrence (LP: háttr), but it is clearly related to the nouns háski and hætta, both ‘danger’, and is equivalent to the adj. hættr ‘dangerous’ as in ÞjóðA Sex 2/7II hættr Serkjum ‘dangerous to Serkir (Saracens)’ or Hfr Óldr 2/1, 2 hættr fjǫrvi Gota ‘dangerous to the life of the Gotar’.

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inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

[2] inn: enn Holm2, 68, en R686ˣ, 325VI, 75c, Bb, it 61, DG8, ek FskBˣ

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styrkr ‘the strong’

2. styrkr (adj.): powerful, strong

[3] styrkr: ‘strycr’ Holm2

kennings

styrkr vǫrðr verðungar
‘the strong guardian of the troop ’
   = RULER

the strong guardian of the troop → RULER
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gekk ‘advanced’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[3] gekk: fekk J2ˣ, helt FskBˣ, FskAˣ, DG8

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vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

styrkr vǫrðr verðungar
‘the strong guardian of the troop ’
   = RULER

the strong guardian of the troop → RULER
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virki ‘the fortification’

virki (noun n.; °-s; -): stronghold

[3] virki: verki J2ˣ, Tóm

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verðungar ‘of the troop’

verðung (noun f.): troop, retinue

kennings

styrkr vǫrðr verðungar
‘the strong guardian of the troop ’
   = RULER

the strong guardian of the troop → RULER
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styr ‘battle’

styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle

[4] styr: frið 75c

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gerði ‘held’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[4] gerði: gjǫrðu Tóm

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môttut ‘were not able’

mega (verb): may, might

[5] môttut: môttuð Holm2, R686ˣ, J2ˣ, 78aˣ, 75c, 325VII, máttit 68, máttu Bb, Tóm

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borg ‘bury’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold

notes

[6] Kantaraborg ‘Canterbury’: See Note to Ótt Hfl 10/4.

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kantra ‘’

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kantera ‘’

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Kantara ‘Canter’

kantari (noun m.): Kent, Canter(-bury)

[6] Kantara‑: ‘kantra’ R686ˣ, ‘kantera’ 325VII, Flat

notes

[6] Kantaraborg ‘Canterbury’: See Note to Ótt Hfl 10/4.

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sorgar ‘sorrow’

sorg (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow, affliction

[6] sorgar: sorgir R686ˣ, Bb

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fekksk ‘was caused’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[7] fekksk: so Holm2, R686ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, fekk Kˣ, 75c, Bb, DG8

notes

[7] fekksk ‘was caused’: This reading is found in several ÓH mss across all three classes. The alternative fekk would give mart fekk sorgar prúðum Pǫrtum, either ‘he provided much sorrow to the proud Partar’ or ‘much caused sorrow to the proud Partar’.

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prúðum ‘for the proud’

prúðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): magnificent, proud

notes

[7] prúðum ‘proud’: Another early loan-word, possibly borrowed from OE rather than directly from OFr. (AEW: prúðr); Sigvatr uses it again in Austv 12/2.

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Pǫrtum ‘Partar’

partar (noun m.): partar

notes

[7] Pǫrtum ‘Partar’: Who or (less likely) what is intended by this term, which also occurs in ESk Run 9/3II, is unknown; thorough studies by Poole (1980) and Townend (1998, 62-5) have not resolved the question.

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fort ‘’

fort (adv.)

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por ‘’

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port ‘The town’

port (noun n.; °; -): [stronghold, town] < portgreifi (noun m.)

[8] port‑: ‘por‑’ J2ˣ, 68, ‘fort’ 325V

notes

[8] portgreifar ‘the town reeves’: In this context, it is clear that this word must have been a borrowing from the frequently-attested OE port-gerēfa ‘town reeve’ (a form of local official). It is however difficult to derive ON greifi directly from OE, and MLG is the most likely alternative (Hofmann 1955, 82; AEW: greifi). This example suggests that the simplex was already known, and that it influenced the form in which the OE cpd was borrowed. Sigvatr also uses it later, though with a Norwegian referent, in Berv 14/8II; see Note.

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greifir ‘’

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greifar ‘reeves’

greifi (noun m.): count < portgreifi (noun m.)

[8] ‑greifar: ‘‑greifir’ R686ˣ

notes

[8] portgreifar ‘the town reeves’: In this context, it is clear that this word must have been a borrowing from the frequently-attested OE port-gerēfa ‘town reeve’ (a form of local official). It is however difficult to derive ON greifi directly from OE, and MLG is the most likely alternative (Hofmann 1955, 82; AEW: greifi). This example suggests that the simplex was already known, and that it influenced the form in which the OE cpd was borrowed. Sigvatr also uses it later, though with a Norwegian referent, in Berv 14/8II; see Note.

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Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH-Hkr, Óláfr leads an army in a battle at Canterbury which culminates in their sacking of the town. The stanza is cited after Ótt Hfl 10. Fsk and ÓHLeg note that Óláfr’s eighth battle at Canterbury was once more against Danes, together with Wends; Fsk adds that they were Danakonungs menn ‘the men of the king of the Danes’.

For the battle at Canterbury, see also Ótt Hfl 10. — [1-4]: ÓHLeg does not name Sigvatr, but attributes the lines merely to skalldet ‘the poet’.

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