skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Anon Leið 1VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Leiðarvísan 1’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 141-2.

Anonymous PoemsLeiðarvísan
12

Þinn ‘your’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

[1] Þinn: so 624, ‘[...]inn’ B

notes

[1] Þinn: In B, the beginnings of 10r, 39 and 10r, 40 are indented by some 9mm, to allow space for a larger initial to mark the beginning of the poem, which has not been supplied. All previous eds and transcribers have reconstructed this letter as <Þ>.

Close

sem ‘arrange’

2. semja (verb): befit

notes

[1] sem ek inni ‘I arrange inwardly’: Skj B, followed by Skald, treats both sem and inni as 1st pers. sg. pres. indic. verbs, adding the enclitic pronouns. This requires emendation of ek to ok and inni to innik. They thus read semk ok innik. Finnur Jónsson takes munn ok varrar (l. 4) as the object of semja ‘to arrange, compose’, and þinn óð (l. 1) as the object of inna ‘to perform, relate, tell, achieve’. He construes innik þinn óð … ok semk munn ok varrar ‘I produce your poem ... and arrange [my] mouth and lips’. Kock (NN §1257) argues that this is an example of zeugma, with óð ‘poem’ the object of both verbs and munn ok varrar harðla brátt til hróðrar ‘mouth and lips very eager to praise’ the object of semk. Attwood 1996a retains the ms. reading by treating sem as a conj. meaning ‘just as, as well as’ and ek inni þinn óð ‘I compose your poem’ and sem munn ok varrar ‘just as [I compose my] mouth and lips’ as parallel clauses, with óð and munn ok varrar as the objects of inna in the sense ‘to compose’. The problem with this reading is that inna does not mean ‘to compose’ (as semja does) but ‘to perform, relate’ and thus does not suit both postulated objects. The only other way to keep the ms. reading (and the one adopted here) is to consider sem ek the verb with two objects and regard inni as the adv. ‘inside, indoors’, usually used in a concrete sense, but here meaning ‘inwardly, in my breast’, where poetry resided according to skaldic convention (cf. Meissner, 134-6). Another example of inni used in a metaphorical sense is in Gamlkan Has 7/5.

Close

ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[1] sem ek inni ‘I arrange inwardly’: Skj B, followed by Skald, treats both sem and inni as 1st pers. sg. pres. indic. verbs, adding the enclitic pronouns. This requires emendation of ek to ok and inni to innik. They thus read semk ok innik. Finnur Jónsson takes munn ok varrar (l. 4) as the object of semja ‘to arrange, compose’, and þinn óð (l. 1) as the object of inna ‘to perform, relate, tell, achieve’. He construes innik þinn óð … ok semk munn ok varrar ‘I produce your poem ... and arrange [my] mouth and lips’. Kock (NN §1257) argues that this is an example of zeugma, with óð ‘poem’ the object of both verbs and munn ok varrar harðla brátt til hróðrar ‘mouth and lips very eager to praise’ the object of semk. Attwood 1996a retains the ms. reading by treating sem as a conj. meaning ‘just as, as well as’ and ek inni þinn óð ‘I compose your poem’ and sem munn ok varrar ‘just as [I compose my] mouth and lips’ as parallel clauses, with óð and munn ok varrar as the objects of inna in the sense ‘to compose’. The problem with this reading is that inna does not mean ‘to compose’ (as semja does) but ‘to perform, relate’ and thus does not suit both postulated objects. The only other way to keep the ms. reading (and the one adopted here) is to consider sem ek the verb with two objects and regard inni as the adv. ‘inside, indoors’, usually used in a concrete sense, but here meaning ‘inwardly, in my breast’, where poetry resided according to skaldic convention (cf. Meissner, 134-6). Another example of inni used in a metaphorical sense is in Gamlkan Has 7/5.

Close

inni ‘inwardly’

2. inni (adv.): in, inside, indoors

notes

[1] sem ek inni ‘I arrange inwardly’: Skj B, followed by Skald, treats both sem and inni as 1st pers. sg. pres. indic. verbs, adding the enclitic pronouns. This requires emendation of ek to ok and inni to innik. They thus read semk ok innik. Finnur Jónsson takes munn ok varrar (l. 4) as the object of semja ‘to arrange, compose’, and þinn óð (l. 1) as the object of inna ‘to perform, relate, tell, achieve’. He construes innik þinn óð … ok semk munn ok varrar ‘I produce your poem ... and arrange [my] mouth and lips’. Kock (NN §1257) argues that this is an example of zeugma, with óð ‘poem’ the object of both verbs and munn ok varrar harðla brátt til hróðrar ‘mouth and lips very eager to praise’ the object of semk. Attwood 1996a retains the ms. reading by treating sem as a conj. meaning ‘just as, as well as’ and ek inni þinn óð ‘I compose your poem’ and sem munn ok varrar ‘just as [I compose my] mouth and lips’ as parallel clauses, with óð and munn ok varrar as the objects of inna in the sense ‘to compose’. The problem with this reading is that inna does not mean ‘to compose’ (as semja does) but ‘to perform, relate’ and thus does not suit both postulated objects. The only other way to keep the ms. reading (and the one adopted here) is to consider sem ek the verb with two objects and regard inni as the adv. ‘inside, indoors’, usually used in a concrete sense, but here meaning ‘inwardly, in my breast’, where poetry resided according to skaldic convention (cf. Meissner, 134-6). Another example of inni used in a metaphorical sense is in Gamlkan Has 7/5.

Close

salar ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

kennings

harri salar fjalla.
‘lord of the hall of the mountains. May ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains. May → SKY/HEAVEN
lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A common kenning for the sky or heavens; cf. GunnlI Lv 8/2V, Hallv Knútdr 8/2III and Has 30/2.

Close

salar ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

kennings

harri salar fjalla.
‘lord of the hall of the mountains. May ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains. May → SKY/HEAVEN
lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A common kenning for the sky or heavens; cf. GunnlI Lv 8/2V, Hallv Knútdr 8/2III and Has 30/2.

Close

fjalla ‘of the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

kennings

harri salar fjalla.
‘lord of the hall of the mountains. May ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains. May → SKY/HEAVEN
lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A common kenning for the sky or heavens; cf. GunnlI Lv 8/2V, Hallv Knútdr 8/2III and Has 30/2.

Close

fjalla ‘of the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

kennings

harri salar fjalla.
‘lord of the hall of the mountains. May ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains. May → SKY/HEAVEN
lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[2] salar fjalla ‘hall of the mountains [SKY/HEAVEN]’: A common kenning for the sky or heavens; cf. GunnlI Lv 8/2V, Hallv Knútdr 8/2III and Has 30/2.

Close

harri ‘lord’

1. harri (noun m.; °-a): lord

kennings

harri salar fjalla.
‘lord of the hall of the mountains. May ’
   = God

the hall of the mountains. May → SKY/HEAVEN
lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

gefi ‘give’

gefa (verb): give

Close

dǫglingr ‘the king’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

Dǫglingr dœmistóls ok sólar
‘the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun ’
   = God

the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun → God
Close

dœmi ‘of the judgement’

dœmi (noun n.; °-s; -): judgement, example < dœmistóll (noun m.): judgement seat

kennings

Dǫglingr dœmistóls ok sólar
‘the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun ’
   = God

the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun → God
Close

stóls ‘seat’

1. stóll (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): seat, throne < dœmistóll (noun m.): judgement seat

kennings

Dǫglingr dœmistóls ok sólar
‘the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun ’
   = God

the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun → God
Close

ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

Dǫglingr dœmistóls ok sólar
‘the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun ’
   = God

the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun → God
Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

Dǫglingr dœmistóls ok sólar
‘the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun ’
   = God

the king of the judgement-seat and of the sun → God
Close

enn ‘again’

2. enn (adv.): still, yet, again

notes

[7] enn ‘again’: This adv. suggests that the poet has composed poetry in praise of God before; cf. Anon Mgr 2/8 and Anon Vitn 2/7.

Close

sanna ‘true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

notes

[7] sanna ‘true’: Skj B, followed by Skald, emends to sannan, m. acc. sg. to agree with dróttin ‘lord’ (l. 8). The ms. reading is retained here by taking sanna as f. acc. sg., qualifying orðgnótt ‘word-abundance’, amplifying dýra ‘precious’.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Sts 1-5 constitute an appeal to God and the other members of the Trinity to help the poet compose his poem, represented as a praise-poem (hróðr, mærðr). Each st. marks a stage in the poet’s progression towards the realisation of his goal. In st. 1 he has barely begun to prepare his mind and the organs of speech for a quick composition; in st. 2 he asks God to give him plenty of words and predicts that his speech-organs will be stirred into action; in st. 3 he begs the Father and Son to straighten out the poem’s form, while asking the Holy Spirit to strengthen the work. St. 4 sees the poet more confident in his abundance of words, and ready to recite his poem before a human audience, while in st. 5 he asks his audience for a formal hearing and announces his subject: advice about Sunday.

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.