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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Austv 17I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Austrfararvísur 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 606.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonAustrfararvísur
161718

vit ‘’

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Lef ‘’

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Létk ‘I kept’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] Létk (‘Let ec’): ‘Lef vit’ 972ˣ, lét 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 325VII, Tóm, leit Flat, létt ek Bb

notes

[1, 4] létk haldit ‘I kept’: The meaning is more literally ‘I caused to be kept’ (cf. st. 2/1-2 lét ... dreginn ‘I had dragged’), but the construction is a common periphrasis: see CVC: láta IV. 3.

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es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[1] es (‘er’): en R686ˣ, 325VI, 75a, Holm4, 325VII, enn 972ˣ, 73aˣ, 61, Flat, Tóm

notes

[1, 3] es … es ‘when … when’: Kock (NN §§487, 2774) defends and cites parallels to the pleonasm. Ternström (1871, following Fms) adopts the reading (h)inn ítri of 61 and 73aˣ, regarding it as a vocative together with Ôleifr.

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itræn ‘’

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ítran ‘the excellent’

ítr (adj.): glorious

[1] ítran: ítru R686ˣ, ‘itræn’ 972ˣ, ítra 325VI, Flat, ítri 73aˣ, 61, 325VII

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Ôleifr ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[2] Ôleifr: Óláf 325V, R686ˣ, 325VI

notes

[2] Ôleifr ‘Óláfr’: The archaic form, though not here demanded by the rhyme, is the usual one before c. 1100, and it is required elsewhere in Sigvatr’s poetry (e.g., Víkv 9/8 and Nesv 5/4). On the development of the form, see Gordon (1957, 238-9).

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hugat ‘conscientiously’

huga (verb): consider, mind, think

[2] hugat: hugar 68, huggað Tóm

notes

[2] hugat môlum ‘conscientiously ... arrangements’: Hugat is here read as a n. p. p., used adverbially: cf. the adverbial rétt ‘precisely’ in l. 3. It is tempting to read these two words, with Konráð Gíslason (1860b, 333 n. 1), as a cpd equivalent to hugaðsmôlum. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) actually supplies the latter form (spelt hugaz-môlum), assigning it the meaning fortroliger aftaler ‘confidential arrangements’, but there is no ms. support for making the first constituent gen. Cf. Noreen (1923, 41), and Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 177-8).

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môlum ‘to the arrangements’

1. mál (noun n.; °-s; -): speech, matter

notes

[2] hugat môlum ‘conscientiously ... arrangements’: Hugat is here read as a n. p. p., used adverbially: cf. the adverbial rétt ‘precisely’ in l. 3. It is tempting to read these two words, with Konráð Gíslason (1860b, 333 n. 1), as a cpd equivalent to hugaðsmôlum. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) actually supplies the latter form (spelt hugaz-môlum), assigning it the meaning fortroliger aftaler ‘confidential arrangements’, but there is no ms. support for making the first constituent gen. Cf. Noreen (1923, 41), and Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 177-8).

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rétt ‘precisely’

3. réttr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): right, straight, direct

[3] rétt es (‘rett er’): ‘retter at’ R686ˣ

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es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] rétt es (‘rett er’): ‘retter at’ R686ˣ;    es (‘er’): er at 972ˣ, 75a, 73aˣ, ok 61

notes

[1, 3] es … es ‘when … when’: Kock (NN §§487, 2774) defends and cites parallels to the pleonasm. Ternström (1871, following Fms) adopts the reading (h)inn ítri of 61 and 73aˣ, regarding it as a vocative together with Ôleifr.

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ríkan ‘the powerful’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[3] ríkan: ríkjan R686ˣ, 68, Bb

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hittan ‘’

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hittak ‘I met with’

hitta (verb): meet, encounter

[3] hittak: so 325V, 972ˣ, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, Kˣ, Bb, ‘hittan’ Holm2, hitta 325VI

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Rǫgn ‘Rǫgn’

rǫgn (noun n.): the gods (in names) < Rǫgnvaldr (noun m.): Rǫgnvaldr

[4] Rǫgnvald: Rǫgnvaldr 972ˣ, 325VI, ‘regnvadd’ 325VII

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vadd ‘’

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vald ‘valdr’

valdr (noun m.): ruler < Rǫgnvaldr (noun m.): Rǫgnvaldr

[4] Rǫgnvald: Rǫgnvaldr 972ˣ, 325VI, ‘regnvadd’ 325VII

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konungr ‘King’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[4] konungr: konung 325VI, konungs 325VII

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haldit ‘’

halda (verb): hold, keep

notes

[1, 4] létk haldit ‘I kept’: The meaning is more literally ‘I caused to be kept’ (cf. st. 2/1-2 lét ... dreginn ‘I had dragged’), but the construction is a common periphrasis: see CVC: láta IV. 3.

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dellda ‘’

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Deildak ‘I dealt’

2. deila (verb; °-ld-): share out, deal

[5] Deildak (‘deilda ec’): ‘dellda ek’ Bb

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môl ‘arrangements’

1. mál (noun n.; °-s; -): speech, matter

[5] môl: so 325VI, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Kˣ, Bb, máls Holm2, 325V, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Tóm

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

[5] ins: við 325VI, enn 68, en 325VII

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malfa ‘’

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malma ‘of metal weapons’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[6] malma: ‘malfa’ Bb

kennings

vǫrðr malma;
‘guardian of metal weapons; I ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

guardian of metal weapons; I → WARRIOR = Óláfr
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vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

[6] vǫrðr: so 325V, Tóm, Bb, vǫrðs Holm2, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, 68, Holm4, Kˣ, vǫrð 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 325VII, vǫrðum 61, norðr Flat

kennings

vǫrðr malma;
‘guardian of metal weapons; I ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

guardian of metal weapons; I → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[6] vǫrðr ‘guardian’: Some of the mss have gen. sg. vǫrðs. Kock in NN §629 prefers the vocative reading, but in §3031 he defends the gen. one (with vǫrðs qualified by ens/ins milda ‘of the generous’ in l. 5), while Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 27) regards it as implausible that Sigvatr should have formed the gen. of vǫrðr as anything but varðar. Jón Skaptason (1983, 98) adopts the poss. reading and has ens/ins milda malma vǫrðs ‘of the generous guardian of metals’ depend on mál/môl ‘arrangements’ in l. 5.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[6] í gǫrðum: om. 61

notes

[6] í gǫrðum ‘in the courts’: Ternström (1871, 50) would read í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’, and Schreiner (1927-9c, 44-5) adopts this reading in support of his hypothesis that Austv is an amalgam of two poems. Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 179-80) also interprets the phrase this way, noting that in that event ens/ins milda ‘of the generous one’ in l. 5 must qualify môl ‘arrangements’ rather than gǫrðum. (Skj B takes gǫrðum ens/ins milda heiðmanns ‘courts of the generous jarl’ together.) For counter-arguments, see Toll (1927-9) and Patzig (1930b, 93-4). Finnur Jónsson (1934a, 16) argues that the claim in Fsk (cf. ÍF 29, 180) that Sigvatr visited Russia is the result of a misinterpretation of this stanza (which is not quoted in Fsk).

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gǫrðum ‘the courts’

garðr (noun m.): enclosure, yard

[6] í gǫrðum: om. 61

notes

[6] í gǫrðum ‘in the courts’: Ternström (1871, 50) would read í Gǫrðum ‘in Russia’, and Schreiner (1927-9c, 44-5) adopts this reading in support of his hypothesis that Austv is an amalgam of two poems. Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 179-80) also interprets the phrase this way, noting that in that event ens/ins milda ‘of the generous one’ in l. 5 must qualify môl ‘arrangements’ rather than gǫrðum. (Skj B takes gǫrðum ens/ins milda heiðmanns ‘courts of the generous jarl’ together.) For counter-arguments, see Toll (1927-9) and Patzig (1930b, 93-4). Finnur Jónsson (1934a, 16) argues that the claim in Fsk (cf. ÍF 29, 180) that Sigvatr visited Russia is the result of a misinterpretation of this stanza (which is not quoted in Fsk).

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harða ‘with very’

harða (adv.): very

[7] harða: hǫrða 68, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

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mǫrg ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[7] mǫrg: so R686ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, Holm4, Flat, Tóm, Kˣ, Bb, mǫgr Holm2, 325V, 61, 325VII, mjǫk 972ˣ, magr 68

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‘not’

né (conj.): nor

[7] né: er 73aˣ, en Flat, Tóm

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heyrðak ‘heard’

2. heyra (verb): hear

[7] heyrðak (‘ec heyrþac’): ek heyrðat 325V, ek heyrði héðra 61

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tǫlur ‘speeches’

1. tala (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): [speeches]

[8] tǫlur: tǫlu 325VI, tǫlu corrected from ‘tǫlur’ 325VII

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greðri ‘’

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greiðri ‘more loyal’

greiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. greiðastr/greiztr): smooth, easy

[8] greiðri: ‘greðri’ 325V, greiðar R686ˣ, 972ˣ, 68, greiða Kˣ

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Sigvatr delivers Austv 1 then this and the following three stanzas to King Óláfr at his court after his return from the east. The four stanzas are written out with no intervening prose.

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