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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ólhv Hryn 12II

Lauren Goetting (ed.) 2009, ‘Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 12’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 669-70.

Óláfr hvítaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
1112

Aldri ‘Never’

aldri (adv.): never

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stœrðir ‘empowered’

stýra (verb): steer, control

[1, 2] stœrðir ógnsveipanda: ‘stǽr[...]’ 55 A    [1] stœrðir: stœrðar F

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ógn ‘terror’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle < ógnsveipandi (noun m.)

[1, 2] stœrðir ógnsveipanda: ‘stǽr[...]’ 55 A

kennings

ógnsveipanda
‘terror-spreader ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

terror-spreader → WARRIOR = Hákon
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sveipanda ‘spreader’

sveipandi (noun m.): [spreader] < ógnsveipandi (noun m.)

[1, 2] stœrðir ógnsveipanda: ‘stǽr[...]’ 55 A    [2] ‑sveipanda: so 8, ‑sveipinna E, F, 81a, 8, Flat, ‑svipanna 42ˣ

kennings

ógnsveipanda
‘terror-spreader ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

terror-spreader → WARRIOR = Hákon
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blóðgum ‘with bloody’

blóðigr (adj.; °blóðgan/blóðugan (f. dat. sg. bloðre Gulᴵ 82³⁴)): bloody

notes

[2] blóðgum greipum ‘with bloody hands’: It is preferable with regard to syntax to construe this with the first cl., though it could also be construed with the the second cl. (so Skj B) (see Kuhn 1983, 202-4).

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greipum ‘hands’

greipr (noun m.): grip, hands

[2] greipum: sverðum 55 A

notes

[2] blóðgum greipum ‘with bloody hands’: It is preferable with regard to syntax to construe this with the first cl., though it could also be construed with the the second cl. (so Skj B) (see Kuhn 1983, 202-4).

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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hvǫss ‘the fierce’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp

[3] hvǫss: horsk 55 A, hraust F, ‘huerss’ 81a, ‘huo᷎rs’ 8, hress Flat

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garði ‘the churchyard’

garðr (noun m.): enclosure, yard

[3, 4] garði harrar tveir: ‘ga[...]’ 55 A

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harrar ‘lords’

1. harri (noun m.; °-a): lord

[3, 4] garði harrar tveir: ‘ga[...]’ 55 A    [4] harrar: herrar E, F, 42ˣ, 81a, 8, Flat

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tveir ‘two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

[3, 4] garði harrar tveir: ‘ga[...]’ 55 A

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drengskap ‘bravery’

drengskapr (noun m.): [bravery, manliness]

notes

[4] drengskap ‘bravery’: It is difficult to capture the full sense of drengskapr in translation. The word connotes uprightness, nobility, and bravery, and was central to the expression of courtly behaviour in the C13-14th. Its use in poetry, however, is restricted to the present st. and Anon Heil 20/2VII. Here and throughout the poem, Óláfr is careful not to impugn the actions of either of the rivals for the throne. Rather, he praises both contenders and emphasises the courage and uprightness of both with the word drengskapr.

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sás ‘who’

sás (conj.): the one who

[5] sás (‘sá er’): sá 81a

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fremstr ‘foremost’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

[5] fremstr vas fundinn: ‘f[...]’ 55 A

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] fremstr vas fundinn: ‘f[...]’ 55 A

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fundinn ‘found’

2. finna (verb): find, meet

[5] fremstr vas fundinn: ‘f[...]’ 55 A

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fyrða ‘of the people’

2. fyrðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): man

kennings

Gramr fyrða,
‘The leader of the people, ’
   = RULER = Skúli

The leader of the people, → RULER = Skúli
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gramr ‘The leader’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Gramr fyrða,
‘The leader of the people, ’
   = RULER = Skúli

The leader of the people, → RULER = Skúli
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byrðum ‘birth’

byrðr (noun f.; °byrðar, acc. byrði/byrð(GrgKonᴵ 205¹¹); byrðar, acc. byrðar/byrðir): burden, load

[6] byrðum: burðum all

notes

[6] byrðum (f. dat. pl.) ‘birth’: The f. i-stem byrð ‘birth’ is much rarer in ON than its m. counterpart burðr ‘birth’ (all other cognates in Gmc are f.). However, in keeping with previous eds, burðum (so all mss) has been emended to byrðum in order to supply the full internal rhyme in l. 6 (fyrða : byrðum).

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Sverris ‘Sverrir’s’

Sverrir (noun m.): Sverrir

[7] Sverris: ‘sueriss’ 81a

kennings

ætt Sverris
‘Sverrir’s descendant ’
   = Hákon

Sverrir’s descendant → Hákon

notes

[7] ætt Sverris ‘Sverrir’s descendant [= Hákon]’: The word ætt in skaldic poetry may signify ‘family member’ or more specifically ‘descendant’ (see LP: ætt), whereas in prose it generally denotes ‘family’. The Sverrir mentioned in the circumlocution ætt Sverris ‘Sverrir’s descendant [= Hákon]’ is Hákon’s paternal grandfather, King Sverrir Sigurðarson (d. 1202).

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ætt ‘descendant’

1. ætt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): family

[7] ætt fekk sigr at: ‘[...]’ 55 A

kennings

ætt Sverris
‘Sverrir’s descendant ’
   = Hákon

Sverrir’s descendant → Hákon

notes

[7] ætt Sverris ‘Sverrir’s descendant [= Hákon]’: The word ætt in skaldic poetry may signify ‘family member’ or more specifically ‘descendant’ (see LP: ætt), whereas in prose it generally denotes ‘family’. The Sverrir mentioned in the circumlocution ætt Sverris ‘Sverrir’s descendant [= Hákon]’ is Hákon’s paternal grandfather, King Sverrir Sigurðarson (d. 1202).

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fekk ‘won’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[7] ætt fekk sigr at: ‘[...]’ 55 A

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sigr ‘victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory

[7] ætt fekk sigr at: ‘[...]’ 55 A

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at ‘’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] ætt fekk sigr at: ‘[...]’ 55 A

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framiðr ‘excellent’

framaðr (adj.): [excellent]

[8] framiðr: framdr 42ˣ

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Skúli spurred his horse on toward Hákon’s standard, but one of his men caught the reins and held the horse back. The Birkibeinar threw spears at Skúli and nearly hit him.

For these events, see also Sturl Hákkv 18.

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