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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ólhv Hryn 10II

Lauren Goetting (ed.) 2009, ‘Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 667.

Óláfr hvítaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda
91011

Hall ‘brilliant’

3. hallr (adj.): tilting, awry < hallgeislaðr (adj.)

[1] Hall‑: ‘Hatt‑’ 81a

kennings

hallgeislat tungl hildar
‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle ’
   = SHIELDS

brilliant-coloured moons of battle → SHIELDS

notes

[1, 2] hallgeislat tungl hildar ‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle [SHIELDS]’: The cpd hallgeislat is a hap. leg. consisting of hallr ‘stone, jewel, colour’ and geislat (adj., n. acc. sg., p. p. of geisla ‘beam, illuminate’) ‘illuminated’ (see LP: hallgeislaðr). Hallgeislat modifies tungl (n. acc. sg.), which is used here with a pl. meaning. For the custom of painting and ornamenting shields, see Falk 1914, 143-8.

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geislat ‘coloured’

geisla (verb): [coloured, dazzled] < hallgeislaðr (adj.)

[1] ‑geislat: ‑gíslat F, ‘‑gilsar’ 42ˣ, ‘‑geírstad’ 81a, ‑geisat 8

kennings

hallgeislat tungl hildar
‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle ’
   = SHIELDS

brilliant-coloured moons of battle → SHIELDS

notes

[1, 2] hallgeislat tungl hildar ‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle [SHIELDS]’: The cpd hallgeislat is a hap. leg. consisting of hallr ‘stone, jewel, colour’ and geislat (adj., n. acc. sg., p. p. of geisla ‘beam, illuminate’) ‘illuminated’ (see LP: hallgeislaðr). Hallgeislat modifies tungl (n. acc. sg.), which is used here with a pl. meaning. For the custom of painting and ornamenting shields, see Falk 1914, 143-8.

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rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[1] rauð: fló Flat

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hvatt ‘bravely’

hvatr (adj.; °-ari, -an; -astr): keen, brave

[1] hvatt: so F, 81a, Flat, ‘buat’ E, hvatr 42ˣ, hart 8

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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

hallgeislat tungl hildar
‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle ’
   = SHIELDS

brilliant-coloured moons of battle → SHIELDS

notes

[1, 2] hallgeislat tungl hildar ‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle [SHIELDS]’: The cpd hallgeislat is a hap. leg. consisting of hallr ‘stone, jewel, colour’ and geislat (adj., n. acc. sg., p. p. of geisla ‘beam, illuminate’) ‘illuminated’ (see LP: hallgeislaðr). Hallgeislat modifies tungl (n. acc. sg.), which is used here with a pl. meaning. For the custom of painting and ornamenting shields, see Falk 1914, 143-8.

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tungl ‘moons’

tungl (noun n.; °-s; -): heavenly body

kennings

hallgeislat tungl hildar
‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle ’
   = SHIELDS

brilliant-coloured moons of battle → SHIELDS

notes

[1, 2] hallgeislat tungl hildar ‘brilliant-coloured moons of battle [SHIELDS]’: The cpd hallgeislat is a hap. leg. consisting of hallr ‘stone, jewel, colour’ and geislat (adj., n. acc. sg., p. p. of geisla ‘beam, illuminate’) ‘illuminated’ (see LP: hallgeislaðr). Hallgeislat modifies tungl (n. acc. sg.), which is used here with a pl. meaning. For the custom of painting and ornamenting shields, see Falk 1914, 143-8.

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skata ‘lord’

skati (noun m.; °-a; -nar): chieftan, prince

[2] skata: skatna 81a

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ræstir ‘incited’

ræsa (verb): incite, rush

[3] ræstir: ‘rꜹstír’ F

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þrungu ‘caused’

þrøngva (verb): press, throng

[3] þrungu: ‘þrungðo’ F

notes

[3, 4] þrungu saman ‘caused’: Lit. ‘forced together’.

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jǫfrar ‘the princes’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[3] jǫfrar œstum: so F, 42ˣ, 8, Flat, jǫfra hæstum E, ‘lafrar æstum’ 81a

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œstum ‘a fierce’

œðri (adj. comp.): nobler, higher

[3] jǫfrar œstum: so F, 42ˣ, 8, Flat, jǫfra hæstum E, ‘lafrar æstum’ 81a

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saman ‘’

saman (adv.): together

[4] saman: ‘samam’ 81a

notes

[3, 4] þrungu saman ‘caused’: Lit. ‘forced together’.

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hjaldri ‘battle’

1. hjaldr (noun m.): battle

[4] hjaldri: haldit Flat

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skýfðusk ‘were cut in two’

skýfa (verb): cut, slash

[5] skýfðusk: so 81a, 8, Flat, ‘skipduz’ E, ‘skifðoz’ F, ‘sciptuz’ 42ˣ

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bleikir ‘pale’

2. bleikr (adj.): pale

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fellu ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[6] at: á F, 42ˣ, 8, Flat

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hlífarlauss ‘without a shield’

hlífarlauss (adj.): [without a shield]

notes

[7] hlífarlauss ‘without a shield’: Hap. leg. Hlíf can mean ‘protection’ in general, or more specifically, as in this case, ‘shield’.

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‘fought’

1. vega (verb): strike, slay

[7] vá: var F, 42ˣ

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gramr ‘the king’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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með ‘’

með (prep.): with

[7] með: við 42ˣ

notes

[7] með gæfu ‘successfully’: Lit. ‘with good fortune’ (see NN §2280).

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gæfu ‘successfully’

gæfa (noun f.): luck, fortune

notes

[7] með gæfu ‘successfully’: Lit. ‘with good fortune’ (see NN §2280).

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gyltar ‘gilded’

2. -gyltr (adj.): [gilded]

[8] gyltar: gyldar Flat

kennings

gyltar tungur hjalta
‘gilded tongues of hilts ’
   = SWORDS

gilded tongues of hilts → SWORDS

notes

[8] gyltar tungur hjalta ‘gilded tongues of hilts [SWORDS]’: Cf. Kári Lv 3/5-6V hátungur hjalta ‘long tongues of hilts’ i.e. ‘swords’. The present kenning for ‘sword’, which contains the base-word ‘tongue’, is an artful reversal of the more common practice of referring to the tongue with the base-word ‘sword’ (see Guðrún Nordal 2001, 252). The latter is described in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 108): tunga er opt kǫlluð sverð máls eða munns ‘the tongue is often called sword of speech or mouth’.

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sungu ‘sang’

syngja (verb): sing

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hjalta ‘of hilts’

hjalt (noun n.; °; *-): hilt

kennings

gyltar tungur hjalta
‘gilded tongues of hilts ’
   = SWORDS

gilded tongues of hilts → SWORDS

notes

[8] gyltar tungur hjalta ‘gilded tongues of hilts [SWORDS]’: Cf. Kári Lv 3/5-6V hátungur hjalta ‘long tongues of hilts’ i.e. ‘swords’. The present kenning for ‘sword’, which contains the base-word ‘tongue’, is an artful reversal of the more common practice of referring to the tongue with the base-word ‘sword’ (see Guðrún Nordal 2001, 252). The latter is described in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 108): tunga er opt kǫlluð sverð máls eða munns ‘the tongue is often called sword of speech or mouth’.

Close

tungur ‘tongues’

tunga (noun f.; °-u; -ur): tongue, language

kennings

gyltar tungur hjalta
‘gilded tongues of hilts ’
   = SWORDS

gilded tongues of hilts → SWORDS

notes

[8] gyltar tungur hjalta ‘gilded tongues of hilts [SWORDS]’: Cf. Kári Lv 3/5-6V hátungur hjalta ‘long tongues of hilts’ i.e. ‘swords’. The present kenning for ‘sword’, which contains the base-word ‘tongue’, is an artful reversal of the more common practice of referring to the tongue with the base-word ‘sword’ (see Guðrún Nordal 2001, 252). The latter is described in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 108): tunga er opt kǫlluð sverð máls eða munns ‘the tongue is often called sword of speech or mouth’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The battle of Oslo, fought between the forces of Hákon and Skúli, took place at the churchyard of Hallvardskirken on 21 April 1240. Hákon, at the head of his army, urged his men to advance.

For this event in the battle of Oslo, see also Sturl Hákkv 14.

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