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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Ník Jóndr 3VII

Beatrice La Farge (ed.) 2007, ‘Níkulás Bergsson, Jónsdrápa postula 3’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 68-9.

Níkulás BergssonJónsdrápa postula
23

Sjalfr ‘himself’

sjalfr (adj.): self

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allra ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

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sal ‘the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall

kennings

sal sólar,
‘the hall of the sun, ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the hall of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN

notes

[2-3] deilandi sal sólar ‘sharing out the hall of the sun’: Following Bugge (1874, 933), this phrase is understood as ‘who gives/is giving (men) a share in the hall of the sun [HEAVEN]’ and thus as a reference to the entrance to heaven granted by Christ to men by means of his death on the Cross.

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deilandi ‘sharing out’

2. deila (verb; °-ld-): share out, deal

notes

[2-3] deilandi sal sólar ‘sharing out the hall of the sun’: Following Bugge (1874, 933), this phrase is understood as ‘who gives/is giving (men) a share in the hall of the sun [HEAVEN]’ and thus as a reference to the entrance to heaven granted by Christ to men by means of his death on the Cross.

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sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

sal sólar,
‘the hall of the sun, ’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the hall of the sun, → SKY/HEAVEN

notes

[2-3] deilandi sal sólar ‘sharing out the hall of the sun’: Following Bugge (1874, 933), this phrase is understood as ‘who gives/is giving (men) a share in the hall of the sun [HEAVEN]’ and thus as a reference to the entrance to heaven granted by Christ to men by means of his death on the Cross.

Close

vagn ‘of the wagon’

vagn (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wagon < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

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vagn ‘of the wagon’

vagn (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wagon < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

vagn ‘of the wagon’

vagn (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wagon < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

vagn ‘of the wagon’

vagn (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): wagon < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

bryggju ‘bridge’

1. bryggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. bryggna): landing, bridge, gangway, quay < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

bryggju ‘bridge’

1. bryggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. bryggna): landing, bridge, gangway, quay < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

bryggju ‘bridge’

1. bryggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. bryggna): landing, bridge, gangway, quay < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

bryggju ‘bridge’

1. bryggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. bryggna): landing, bridge, gangway, quay < vagnbryggja (noun f.)

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] vagnbryggju ‘of the wagon-bridge’: That is, bridge of the Great Bear. The constellation Ursa Major ‘Great Bear’ or ‘Big Dipper’ is called vagn ‘Wagon’ in ON ( II, cxlv, 250), cf. the OE name for this constellation, carles wæn ‘wagon of the churl’, later ‘Charles’s Wain’. The word ‘wagon’ is appropriate to the metaphor ‘bridge of the Wagon’ as a kenning for sky or heaven. — [6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

tyggi ‘the ruler’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

kennings

tyggi vagnbryggju
‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge ’
   = God

the wagon-bridge → SKY/HEAVEN
the ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[6] tyggi ... vagnbryggju ‘the ruler of the wagon-bridge’: The ms. reading is tiggi, but, since a full internal rhyme (aðalhending) is required in the even ll. of dróttkvætt, eds introduce the equivalent form tyggi, which shares internal rhyme with vagnbryggju (LP: tyggi).

Close

háva ‘the high’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

háva hjarlborg.
‘the high earth-castle.’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the high earth-castle. → SKY/HEAVEN
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hjarl ‘earth’

hjarl (noun n.): land < hjarlborg (noun f.)

kennings

háva hjarlborg.
‘the high earth-castle.’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the high earth-castle. → SKY/HEAVEN
Close

borg ‘castle’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold < hjarlborg (noun f.)

kennings

háva hjarlborg.
‘the high earth-castle.’
   = SKY/HEAVEN

the high earth-castle. → SKY/HEAVEN
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skapaðr ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Jón4 this st. is introduced with the remark: I þriði stað segir hann sva blezaðr af sama sętleik elskunnar ‘In third place [in the poem] it says that he [John] was thus blessed with the same sweetness of love’.

This st. refers to S. John’s status as ‘the Apostle whom Jesus loved’ (cf. John XIII.23, XIX.26, XXI.7 and 20). — [1-4]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B), Lange (1958a, 79; 1958b, 17) as well as Bugge (1874, 933) and possibly Kock (Skald) construe the syntax of this helmingr slightly differently from what is presented here: Finnur Jónsson regards the adjectives sjálfr and snjallr as attributives modifying the noun siklingr ‘lord’ and sees the kenning sal deilandi sólar ‘the one ruling the hall of the sun’ as an apposition to sjálfr snjallr siklingr ‘the wise lord himself’ (see Lange 1958a, 79; Lange 1958b, 17). Both phrases are thus the subject of the sentence in the first helmingr. Kock on the contrary sees the two adjectives sjálfr and snjallr as modifying deilandi ‘the ruling one’, the subject of the sentence is thus Sjálfr snjallr sal deilandi sólar ‘the wise one himself, ruling the hall of the sun’. It is unclear whether Kock regards siklingr ‘lord’ as another term for ‘God’ standing in apposition to Sjalfr ... sólar or rather as an term of address for John himself. Bugge appears to regard sjálfr, snjallr and sal-deilandi sólar as three modifiers of the noun siklingr, in this case the pres. part. deilandi would be used as an adj. rather than as a noun.

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