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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Mark Eirdr 19II

Jayne Carroll (ed.) 2009, ‘Markús Skeggjason, Eiríksdrápa 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 448-9.

Markús SkeggjasonEiríksdrápa
181920

Heiðinn ‘The heathen’

heiðinn (adj.): heathen

[1] Heiðinn: heiðnum 180b

notes

[1, 2] heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘the heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’: I.e., a troop armed with spears. So Skald, ÍF 35. For an alternative interpretation, see Note to l. 4 below.

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vildi ‘wished’

vilja (verb): want, intend

notes

[1] vildi ‘wished [to escape]’: Here, as is common in both prose and poetry, vilja is used elliptically, with the inf. verb of motion understood (and conveyed, in part, in ór ‘out of’).

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herr ‘host’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

notes

[1, 2] heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘the heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’: I.e., a troop armed with spears. So Skald, ÍF 35. For an alternative interpretation, see Note to l. 4 below.

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of ‘at’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[1] of síðir: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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síðir ‘last’

1. síð (noun f.; °; -ir): um síðir: in the end

[1] of síðir: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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hǫmlu ‘of the staff’

1. hamla (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): rowing position

[2] hǫmlu vígs ór porti gǫmlu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

kennings

hǫmlu vígs
‘of the staff of battle ’
   = SPEAR

the staff of battle → SPEAR

notes

[1, 2] heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘the heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’: I.e., a troop armed with spears. So Skald, ÍF 35. For an alternative interpretation, see Note to l. 4 below.

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vígs ‘of battle’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[2] hǫmlu vígs ór porti gǫmlu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

kennings

hǫmlu vígs
‘of the staff of battle ’
   = SPEAR

the staff of battle → SPEAR

notes

[1, 2] heiðinn herr hǫmlu vígs ‘the heathen host of the staff of battle [SPEAR]’: I.e., a troop armed with spears. So Skald, ÍF 35. For an alternative interpretation, see Note to l. 4 below.

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[2] hǫmlu vígs ór porti gǫmlu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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porti ‘stronghold’

port (noun n.; °; -): [stronghold, town]

[2] hǫmlu vígs ór porti gǫmlu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

notes

[2] porti ‘stronghold’: Port (n.) seems here to be used in the sense ‘stronghold’, or more specifically, ‘a citadel, fortified castle by a harbour’ (see LP: port), derived from OE port (< Lat. portus ‘harbour’; see AEW: port 2). If so, it could denote the viking stronghold in Wollin (cf. Saxo 2005, II, 12, 4, 2, pp. 72-3 and Note to st. 13 [All]). In poetry, the word occurs in this meaning only here. More commonly port means ‘gate’ (see Fritzner: port), derived from OE port (< Lat. porta ‘gate, door’; see AEW: port 1).

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gǫmlu ‘the old’

gamall (adj.; °gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.): old

[2] hǫmlu vígs ór porti gǫmlu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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urðu ‘had’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[3] urðu þeir es virki vǫrðu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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es ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] urðu þeir es virki vǫrðu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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virki ‘the fort’

virki (noun n.; °-s; -): stronghold

[3] urðu þeir es virki vǫrðu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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vǫrðu ‘defended’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[3] urðu þeir es virki vǫrðu: ‘[…]’ 20b I

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vangi ‘the plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain

[4] vangi: vængi 180b

notes

[4] vangi ‘the plain’: In Skj B this is taken as the base-word in a kenning for ‘shield’, vangi hǫmlu vígs ‘plain of the stake of battle [SPEAR > SHIELD]’ (ll. 2, 4) which functions instrumentally with the verb phrase vǫrðu virki ‘defended the fort (with the shield)’ (l. 3). Given Markús’s apparent preference for syntactic units corresponding to single ll. or couplets, and his sparing use of tvíkennt kennings, the reading offered above (as in ÍF 35 and Skald; see NN §917) is preferable.

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hǫnd ‘’

hǫnd (noun f.; °handar, dat. hendi; hendr (hendir StatPáll³ 752¹²)): hand

[4] hǫnd at ganga: ‘he[…]’ 20b I;    hǫnd at: hendr 180b

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at ‘to’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[4] hǫnd at ganga: ‘he[…]’ 20b I;    hǫnd at: hendr 180b

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ganga ‘submit’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[4] hǫnd at ganga: ‘he[…]’ 20b I

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As sts 14-18 above. After fierce attacks by the Danes, the Wends who had sought refuge in the strongholds submitted to Eiríkr’s army.

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