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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hskv Útdr 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Halldórr skvaldri, Útfarardrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 484-5.

Halldórr skvaldriÚtfarardrápa
12

fádýrir ‘the ignoble’

fádýrr (adj.): [ignoble]

notes

[1, 4] fádýrir víkingar ‘the ignoble vikings’: This refers to Sigurðr’s enemies, most likely the Moors. In C11th-12th encomiastic poetry, the term víkingr could have both positive and negative connotations. Bkrepp Magndr 4 (c. 1100) and Þskakk Erldr 3 (c. 1164) use the term negatively to designate the opponents of Magnús berfœttr and Erlingr skakki respectively. In Steinn Óldr 3, however, ‘vikings’ denote the Norw. troops at the battle of Fulford (1066), in Valg Har 3 (before 1066) the term refers to the troops of Haraldr harðráði and in Ív Sig 42 (c. 1140), King Sigurðr slembidjákn is referred to as a ‘viking’.

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Fjǫlnis ‘of Fjǫlnir’s’

Fjǫlnir (noun m.): Fjǫlnir

kennings

móti Fjǫlnis hróts
‘the meeting of Fjǫlnir’s roof ’
   = BATTLE

Fjǫlnir’s roof → SHIELD
the meeting of the SHIELD → BATTLE
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Fjǫlnis ‘of Fjǫlnir’s’

Fjǫlnir (noun m.): Fjǫlnir

kennings

móti Fjǫlnis hróts
‘the meeting of Fjǫlnir’s roof ’
   = BATTLE

Fjǫlnir’s roof → SHIELD
the meeting of the SHIELD → BATTLE
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hróts ‘roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof

[2] hróts: so E, 42ˣ, H, Hr, ‘rótz’ Kˣ, F, ‘rotz’ 39, ‘hrozc’ J2ˣ

kennings

móti Fjǫlnis hróts
‘the meeting of Fjǫlnir’s roof ’
   = BATTLE

Fjǫlnir’s roof → SHIELD
the meeting of the SHIELD → BATTLE
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hróts ‘roof’

hrót (noun n.): roof

[2] hróts: so E, 42ˣ, H, Hr, ‘rótz’ Kˣ, F, ‘rotz’ 39, ‘hrozc’ J2ˣ

kennings

móti Fjǫlnis hróts
‘the meeting of Fjǫlnir’s roof ’
   = BATTLE

Fjǫlnir’s roof → SHIELD
the meeting of the SHIELD → BATTLE
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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at: á Hr

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móti ‘the meeting’

1. mót (noun n.; °; -): meeting

kennings

móti Fjǫlnis hróts
‘the meeting of Fjǫlnir’s roof ’
   = BATTLE

Fjǫlnir’s roof → SHIELD
the meeting of the SHIELD → BATTLE
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vígôsum ‘the protective plankings’

vígáss (noun m.): protective planking

notes

[3] vígôsum ‘protective plankings’: Vígáss was a plank on board the ship that was used to support the víggyrðill, the protecting board-wall which was fastened on the inner side of the gunwale to increase its height during enemy attacks at sea (see Falk 1912, 13, 116). Skj B separates the two elements of the cpd and takes the first element with ríkjum ‘mighty’ (l. 4) (at móti vígríkjum gram ‘to the meeting with the battle-mighty monarch’), whereas the second element is construed as part of a kenning for ‘warriors’ (vísi hlóð sum Fjǫlnis hróts ‘the lord stacked the gods of Fjǫlnir’s roof’ (ll. 3-4)). That reading causes a very convoluted w. o. Kock (NN §§964, 2990C) construes the warrior-kenning vígsum Fjǫlnis hróts ‘the battle-gods of Fjǫlnir’s roof’ (i.e. ‘the battle-gods of the shield’) as an object of the verb hlaða ‘set up, stack, kill’ (so also ÍF 28), but that kenning is hyperdetermined since sum Fjǫlnis hróts ‘the gods of Fjǫlnir’s roof’ is a kenning for ‘warriors’.

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víkingar ‘vikings’

víking (noun f.; °dat./acc. -/-u): viking journey

notes

[1, 4] fádýrir víkingar ‘the ignoble vikings’: This refers to Sigurðr’s enemies, most likely the Moors. In C11th-12th encomiastic poetry, the term víkingr could have both positive and negative connotations. Bkrepp Magndr 4 (c. 1100) and Þskakk Erldr 3 (c. 1164) use the term negatively to designate the opponents of Magnús berfœttr and Erlingr skakki respectively. In Steinn Óldr 3, however, ‘vikings’ denote the Norw. troops at the battle of Fulford (1066), in Valg Har 3 (before 1066) the term refers to the troops of Haraldr harðráði and in Ív Sig 42 (c. 1140), King Sigurðr slembidjákn is referred to as a ‘viking’.

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gram ‘monarch’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[4] gram: gramr 39, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ

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ríkjum ‘with the mighty’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[4] ríkjum: so E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, ríkum Kˣ, 39, F, H, Hr

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drengja ‘of the warriors’

drengr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja): man, warrior

kennings

vinr drengja,
‘the friend of the warriors, ’
   = Sigurðr

the friend of the warriors, → Sigurðr
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vinr ‘the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

[6] vinr fengi: vinfengi 39, vinr í fengi Hr

kennings

vinr drengja,
‘the friend of the warriors, ’
   = Sigurðr

the friend of the warriors, → Sigurðr
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fengi ‘seized’

fengi (noun n.; °-s): booty

[6] vinr fengi: vinfengi 39, vinr í fengi Hr

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[7] þars (‘þar er’): en 39, F, E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, þar Hr

notes

[7-8] þars fátt lið fellat ‘where not a few troops fell’: Lit. ‘where few troops did not fall’.

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fellat ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

[7] fellat: so all others, fella Kˣ

notes

[7-8] þars fátt lið fellat ‘where not a few troops fell’: Lit. ‘where few troops did not fall’.

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fátt ‘not a few’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

notes

[7-8] þars fátt lið fellat ‘where not a few troops fell’: Lit. ‘where few troops did not fall’.

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lið ‘troops’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[7-8] þars fátt lið fellat ‘where not a few troops fell’: Lit. ‘where few troops did not fall’.

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galeiðr ‘galleys’

galeiðr (noun f.): [galleys]

notes

[8] galeiðr ‘galleys’: Other than in a þula (Þul Skipa 4/5III) this word is attested only here in poetry. For Mediterranean galleys, see Pryor and Jeffreys 2006, 422-44.

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While sailing past the Iberian Peninsula, Sigurðr encountered a fleet of galleys. He engaged in battle and captured eight ships.

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