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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 23I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 23’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 433.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
222324

Norð ‘of Nor’

norð- ((prefix)): northern, Norwegian < norðmaðr (noun m.): Norwegian

kennings

nenninn dróttin* Norðmanna
‘the energetic lord of Norwegians ’
   = Óláfr

the energetic lord of Norwegians → Óláfr
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manna ‘wegians’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < norðmaðr (noun m.): Norwegian

kennings

nenninn dróttin* Norðmanna
‘the energetic lord of Norwegians ’
   = Óláfr

the energetic lord of Norwegians → Óláfr
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nenninn ‘the energetic’

nenninn (adj.): vigorous

kennings

nenninn dróttin* Norðmanna
‘the energetic lord of Norwegians ’
   = Óláfr

the energetic lord of Norwegians → Óláfr
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nús ‘now’

nú (adv.): now

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framgenginn ‘has passed on’

1. framganga (noun f.): [has passed on]

notes

[2] framgenginn ‘passed on’: Previous eds have framm genginn, although it is clearly written as one word in both mss. In its literal sense of ‘go, move forward’ ganga framm is common in skaldic poetry, e.g. in battle-descriptions, but the extended sense ‘go on [into death]’, and this cpd, seem otherwise to be found only in poetry in eddic metres (Vsp 39/8, Skí 12/2, Herv Lv 2/3VIII (Heiðr 15)).

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dýrr ‘the worthy’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

[3] dýrr: dýr all

kennings

dýrr stjóri dróttar
‘the worthy steerer of the retinue ’
   = RULER

the worthy steerer of the retinue → RULER

notes

[3] dýrr ‘worthy’: The mss have ‘dyr’, i.e. dýr, but that form (f. nom. sg. or n. nom./acc. pl.) cannot fit here.

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dróttar ‘of the retinue’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

kennings

dýrr stjóri dróttar
‘the worthy steerer of the retinue ’
   = RULER

the worthy steerer of the retinue → RULER
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stjóri ‘steerer’

stjóri (noun m.; °-a; -ar): steerer

kennings

dýrr stjóri dróttar
‘the worthy steerer of the retinue ’
   = RULER

the worthy steerer of the retinue → RULER
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dróttin* ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

[4] dróttin*: dróttinn all

kennings

nenninn dróttin* Norðmanna
‘the energetic lord of Norwegians ’
   = Óláfr

the energetic lord of Norwegians → Óláfr

notes

[4] dróttin* ‘lord’: The mss have ‘drottinn’ (the second n abbreviated), but acc. sg. dróttin is required as object to hykk ‘I think’.

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und ‘to’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[4] sóttan und lok ‘gone to his end’: Kiil (1953) suggests that the phrase sœkja und lok (or fara und lok, cf. Kveld Lv 1/4V (Eg 1)) has roots in Germanic and Saami burial customs, since lok can mean ‘cover, lid’. However, the fact that lok (sg. or pl.) can mean ‘end, conclusion’ (Fritzner: lok 6) seems sufficient to explain its use in circumlocutions for death.

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lok ‘his end’

1. lok (noun n.; °-s; -): end

notes

[4] sóttan und lok ‘gone to his end’: Kiil (1953) suggests that the phrase sœkja und lok (or fara und lok, cf. Kveld Lv 1/4V (Eg 1)) has roots in Germanic and Saami burial customs, since lok can mean ‘cover, lid’. However, the fact that lok (sg. or pl.) can mean ‘end, conclusion’ (Fritzner: lok 6) seems sufficient to explain its use in circumlocutions for death.

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sóttan ‘has gone’

sœkja (verb): seek, attack

notes

[4] sóttan und lok ‘gone to his end’: Kiil (1953) suggests that the phrase sœkja und lok (or fara und lok, cf. Kveld Lv 1/4V (Eg 1)) has roots in Germanic and Saami burial customs, since lok can mean ‘cover, lid’. However, the fact that lok (sg. or pl.) can mean ‘end, conclusion’ (Fritzner: lok 6) seems sufficient to explain its use in circumlocutions for death.

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Grams ‘ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

notes

[5] dauði ... grams ‘the death of the ... ruler’: Cf. gram dauðan ‘the dead ruler’, st. 28/2.

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dauði ‘The death’

dauði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death

notes

[5] dauði ... grams ‘the death of the ... ruler’: Cf. gram dauðan ‘the dead ruler’, st. 28/2.

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gœði ‘the well-being’

gœði (noun n.): wellbeing

notes

[5] gœði ‘the well-being’: The only other secure instance of gœði in the skaldic corpus is Anon Líkn 49/5VII, where it signifies wealth in the Christian spiritual sense of ‘good things, blessings’; it also appears as a variant in the eddic Grí 51/4 (NK 67 and n.), where it seems to mean ‘goodwill’ (LT 96). The related agent-nouns gœðir and gœðingr ‘bestower, benefactor’ are, however, common in skaldic verse of all periods, the latter appearing in st. 27/6.

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góðs ‘of the good’

góðr (adj.): good

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ófárar ‘of not a few’

ófár (adj.): not a few

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allr ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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glepsk ‘is confounded’

glepja (verb): [is confounded]

[7] glepsk: ‘glæps’ all

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friðr ‘peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

[7] friðr: ‘fiðr’ all

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falli ‘the fall’

fall (noun n.; °-s; *-): fall

[7] falli: fjalli 52ˣ

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flug ‘of the flight’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugstyggr (adj.): flight-shunning2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice

kennings

flugstyggs sonar Tryggva.
‘of the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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tyggs ‘’

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tygs ‘’

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styggs ‘shunning’

styggr (adj.): shy < flugstyggr (adj.): flight-shunning

[8] ‑styggs: ‘‑tygs’ FskAˣ, 301ˣ, ‑tyggs 52ˣ

kennings

flugstyggs sonar Tryggva.
‘of the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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sonar ‘son’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

kennings

flugstyggs sonar Tryggva.
‘of the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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Tryggva ‘of Tryggvi’

Tryggvi (noun m.): Tryggvi

kennings

flugstyggs sonar Tryggva.
‘of the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi.’
   = Óláfr

the flight-shunning son of Tryggvi. → Óláfr
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

This follows st. 22 (Fsk only), finishing the sequence of quotations from Hfr ErfÓl in the chapter.

[7-8]: These lines, though quite corrupt in the surviving Fsk tradition, form the stef ‘refrain’ of the drápa (cf. st. 28/3-4). Line 8 participates in a pattern of rhymes on Óláfr’s patronym which extends through much of the poem (see Note to st. 13/2), and is echoed in Sigv ErfÓl 3/2.

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