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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 13I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 13’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 419.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
121314

hræddr ‘afraid’

1. hræddr (adj.): afraid

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ǫrvan ‘the swift’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave

kennings

ǫrvan, hugdyggvan son Tryggva;
‘the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; ’
   = Óláfr

the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; → Óláfr
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hug ‘stead’

hugr (noun m.): mind, thought, courage < hugdyggr (adj.): steadfast

kennings

ǫrvan, hugdyggvan son Tryggva;
‘the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; ’
   = Óláfr

the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; → Óláfr
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dyggvan ‘fast’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy < hugdyggr (adj.): steadfast

kennings

ǫrvan, hugdyggvan son Tryggva;
‘the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; ’
   = Óláfr

the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; → Óláfr
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son ‘son’

sonr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. syni; synir, acc. sonu, syni): son

kennings

ǫrvan, hugdyggvan son Tryggva;
‘the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; ’
   = Óláfr

the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; → Óláfr
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Tryggva ‘of Tryggvi’

Tryggvi (noun m.): Tryggvi

kennings

ǫrvan, hugdyggvan son Tryggva;
‘the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; ’
   = Óláfr

the swift, steadfast son of Tryggvi; → Óláfr
Close

óðusk ‘felt dread’

vaða (verb): advance, wade

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malm ‘of the metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal < malmþing (noun n.): weapon-assembly

kennings

meiðar malmþings
‘poles of the metal meeting ’
   = WARRIORS

the metal meeting → BATTLE
poles of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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malm ‘of the metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal < malmþing (noun n.): weapon-assembly

kennings

meiðar malmþings
‘poles of the metal meeting ’
   = WARRIORS

the metal meeting → BATTLE
poles of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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þings ‘meeting’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < malmþing (noun n.): weapon-assembly

kennings

meiðar malmþings
‘poles of the metal meeting ’
   = WARRIORS

the metal meeting → BATTLE
poles of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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þings ‘meeting’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < malmþing (noun n.): weapon-assembly

kennings

meiðar malmþings
‘poles of the metal meeting ’
   = WARRIORS

the metal meeting → BATTLE
poles of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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meiðar ‘poles’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree

kennings

meiðar malmþings
‘poles of the metal meeting ’
   = WARRIORS

the metal meeting → BATTLE
poles of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

jaðri sólar
‘the borderland of the sun ’
   = SKY

the borderland of the sun → SKY

notes

[4] jaðri sólar ‘the borderland of the sun [SKY]’: An unusual sky-kenning. Among the many involving a determinant meaning ‘sun’ combined with a base-word meaning ‘ground’, ‘road’, ‘hall’, or ‘seat’, there are no parallels for jaðarr ‘border, rim’ in the latter role. However, the existence of Jaðarr (Jæren) as the name of a coastal district in south-west Norway would encourage taking jaðarr here as equivalent to ‘land’ (as LP: jaðarr 1 and Meissner 106 do) and translating ‘borderland’ (more strictly ‘territory at the edge’). Ohlmarks (1958, 450) suggests the kenning refers to the time of day when the sun is just above the horizon.

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jaðri ‘the borderland’

jaðarr (noun m.; °-s, dat. jaðri; jaðrar): edge, border

kennings

jaðri sólar
‘the borderland of the sun ’
   = SKY

the borderland of the sun → SKY

notes

[4] jaðri sólar ‘the borderland of the sun [SKY]’: An unusual sky-kenning. Among the many involving a determinant meaning ‘sun’ combined with a base-word meaning ‘ground’, ‘road’, ‘hall’, or ‘seat’, there are no parallels for jaðarr ‘border, rim’ in the latter role. However, the existence of Jaðarr (Jæren) as the name of a coastal district in south-west Norway would encourage taking jaðarr here as equivalent to ‘land’ (as LP: jaðarr 1 and Meissner 106 do) and translating ‘borderland’ (more strictly ‘territory at the edge’). Ohlmarks (1958, 450) suggests the kenning refers to the time of day when the sun is just above the horizon.

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The battle continues; Óláfr is a prominent and terrifying presence.

[2]: The aðalhending on Óláfr’s patronym Tryggva is also found in sts 20/4, 23/8 and 28/4, and the line itself is taken up with slight variation in HSt Rst 34/2.

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