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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 8I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 258.

Glúmr GeirasonGráfeldardrápa
789

Mælti mætra hjalta
malm-Óðinn sá, blóði,
þróttarorð, es þorði
þjóðum vǫll at rjóða.
Víðlendr of bað vinda
verðung Haraldr sverðum
— frægt þótti þat flotnum
fylkis orð — at morði.

{{Sá mætra hjalta malm}-Óðinn}, es þorði at rjóða vǫll blóði þjóðum, mælti þróttarorð. Víðlendr Haraldr of bað verðung vinda sverðum at morði; þat orð fylkis þótti frægt flotnum.

{That Óðinn <god> {of the metal of the splendid hilt}} [(lit. ‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’) SWORD > WARRIOR], who dared to redden the field with the blood of troops, spoke forceful words. Ruling extensive lands, Haraldr bade the retinue draw swords in battle; that speech of the leader seemed glorious to seafarers.

Mss: (128v), 39(5rb), F(22vb), J1ˣ(80r), J2ˣ(75r) (Hkr); 61(10vb), 53(8vb), 54(4va-b), Bb(14va), 62(3rb-va), Flat(11va) (ÓT); FskBˣ(18r), FskAˣ(74) (Fsk)

Readings: [1] mætra: mettra J1ˣ, motra Flat    [2] sá: þá FskBˣ    [3] es (‘er’): en 62, Flat    [4] þjóðum: þjóðu Bb, bjóðum FskBˣ    [5] ‑lendr: ‑lend FskAˣ;    of (‘um’): ok 53    [6] verðung: ‘verþing’ 54, Bb, verðungr FskBˣ;    Haraldr: Haralds 39, F, Haraldar 62    [7] frægt: ‘frǫgt’ J2ˣ, frekt 53, Flat, frétt Bb, framm FskBˣ;    flotnum: ‘flot[…]’ 39, flótta FskBˣ, FskAˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 77, Skj BI, 66, Skald I, 41, NN §1061; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 276, IV, 71-2, ÍF 26, 238-9, Hkr 1991, I, 158-9 (ÓTHkr ch. 14), F 1871, 104; Fms 1, 88Fms 12, 33, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 95 (ch. 53), Flat 1860-8, I, 85; Fsk 1902-3, 65 (ch. 14), ÍF 29, 108 (ch. 16).

Context: Haraldr, on his way to Denmark to accept an offer of rights to revenues from King Haraldr Gormsson, is intercepted at Háls in Limafjǫrðr (Limfjorden) by Gull-Haraldr Knútsson, who has been encouraged by Hákon jarl Sigurðarson to seize the kingdom of Norway. Despite having the smaller force, Haraldr accepts the challenge to do battle.

Notes: [1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3. — [2] -Óðinn ‘Óðinn <god>’: This is the only known instance of Óðinn, as opposed to numerous heiti for the god, as the base-word of a kenning; see further Note to st. 13 [All]. — [3] þróttarorð ‘forceful words’: Lit. ‘words of power, endurance’. Since this combination recurs it is treated here as a cpd, while Skj B, ÍF 26 and ÍF 29 print it as two words; see Note to Hfr ErfÓl 3/7-8. — [4] þjóðum ‘of troops’: The context suggests a military sense here (as also, e.g., in Hfr ErfÓl 14/4, ÞjóðA Lv 11/3II), though ‘people’ is a more usual sense of þjóð. Syntactically, this dat. pl. form is capable of several interpretations. (a) The phrase blóði þjóðum ‘blood of troops’ is assumed here (as in Skj B), as the most natural in both sense and word order. The usage is comparable with the dat. of respect (almost of possession) common with parts of the body (NS §100 Anm. 3), though the gen. pl. þjóða might be expected (cf. manna ‘of men’ and synonyms qualifying blóð ‘blood’, e.g. in Eyv Hák 6/8, Eyv Hál 8/4, Anon Liðs 2/5-6). (b) Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) also attaches þjóðum to the subordinate clause, but reads rjóða þjóðum vǫll blóði ‘redden the field with blood for men’. Þjóðum is explained as a type of dativus ethicus, with the sense ‘before men’, i.e. ‘where men fought/stood’. ÍF 29 has the same construal, as does Hkr 1991, though with a different word order. (c) Kock (NN §1061) takes þjóðum as the indirect object of mælti in the main clause, hence ‘addressed forceful words to men’, but mæla e-m e-t normally means ‘to stipulate sth for sby’. — [5] víðlendr ‘ruling extensive lands’: Lit. ‘broad-landed’. — [5] vinda ‘draw’: Strictly, ‘wind, twist, turn’, but the sense ‘draw’ is suggested by the preceding prose in Hkr and Fsk, which has Haraldr ordering his men to bregða sverðum sínum ‘draw their swords’ (cf. also LP: 2. vinda 2 and previous eds).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  7. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  8. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  9. NS = Nygaard, Marius. 1906. Norrøn syntax. Kristiania (Oslo): Aschehoug. Rpt. 1966.
  10. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  11. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  12. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  13. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  14. Fsk 1902-3 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1902-3. Fagrskinna: Nóregs kononga tal. SUGNL 30. Copenhagen: Møller.
  15. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  16. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  17. Internal references
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  19. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  20. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Liðsmannaflokkr 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1018.
  21. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1063.
  22. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 206.
  23. R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Hákonarmál 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 180.
  24. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 420.
  25. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 405.
  26. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, Lausavísur 11’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 175-6.
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