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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 8I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 258.

Glúmr GeirasonGráfeldardrápa
789

mætra ‘of the splendid’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected

[1] mætra: mettra J1ˣ, motra Flat

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

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mætra ‘of the splendid’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected

[1] mætra: mettra J1ˣ, motra Flat

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

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hjalta ‘hilt’

hjalt (noun n.; °; *-): hilt

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

Close

hjalta ‘hilt’

hjalt (noun n.; °; *-): hilt

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

Close

malm ‘of the metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal < malmóðinn (noun m.)

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

Close

malm ‘of the metal’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal < malmóðinn (noun m.)

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1-2] mætra hjalta malm- ‘metal ... of the splendid hilt [SWORD]’: On pl. hjǫlt meaning ‘hilt’, see Note to Anon Ól 1/5; for parallels to malmr ‘metal’ as the base-word in a sword-kenning, see Meissner 155, and for hjalta or other sword-parts as determinant, see Meissner 162-3.

Close

Óðinn ‘That Óðinn’

Óðinn (noun m.): Óðinn < malmóðinn (noun m.)

kennings

mætra hjalta malm-Óðinn,
‘metal-Óðinn of the splendid hilt’
   = WARRIOR

the metal of the splendid hilt, → SWORD
That Óðinn of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[2] -Óðinn ‘Óðinn <god>’: This is the only known instance of Óðinn, as opposed to numerous heiti for the god, as the base-word of a kenning; see further Note to st. 13 [All].

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blóði ‘with the blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

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þróttar ‘forceful’

þróttr (noun m.): strength, might, valour < þróttarorð (noun n.): [forceful words]

notes

[3] þróttarorð ‘forceful words’: Lit. ‘words of power, endurance’. Since this combination recurs it is treated here as a cpd, while Skj B, ÍF 26 and ÍF 29 print it as two words; see Note to Hfr ErfÓl 3/7-8.

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orð ‘words’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word < þróttarorð (noun n.): [forceful words]

notes

[3] þróttarorð ‘forceful words’: Lit. ‘words of power, endurance’. Since this combination recurs it is treated here as a cpd, while Skj B, ÍF 26 and ÍF 29 print it as two words; see Note to Hfr ErfÓl 3/7-8.

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es ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] es (‘er’): en 62, Flat

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þorði ‘dared’

þora (verb): dare

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þjóðum ‘of troops’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[4] þjóðum: þjóðu Bb, bjóðum FskBˣ

notes

[4] þjóðum ‘of troops’: The context suggests a military sense here (as also, e.g., in Hfr ErfÓl 14/4, ÞjóðA Lv 11/3II), though ‘people’ is a more usual sense of þjóð. Syntactically, this dat. pl. form is capable of several interpretations. (a) The phrase blóði þjóðum ‘blood of troops’ is assumed here (as in Skj B), as the most natural in both sense and word order. The usage is comparable with the dat. of respect (almost of possession) common with parts of the body (NS §100 Anm. 3), though the gen. pl. þjóða might be expected (cf. manna ‘of men’ and synonyms qualifying blóð ‘blood’, e.g. in Eyv Hák 6/8, Eyv Hál 8/4, Anon Liðs 2/5-6). (b) Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) also attaches þjóðum to the subordinate clause, but reads rjóða þjóðum vǫll blóði ‘redden the field with blood for men’. Þjóðum is explained as a type of dativus ethicus, with the sense ‘before men’, i.e. ‘where men fought/stood’. ÍF 29 has the same construal, as does Hkr 1991, though with a different word order. (c) Kock (NN §1061) takes þjóðum as the indirect object of mælti in the main clause, hence ‘addressed forceful words to men’, but mæla e-m e-t normally means ‘to stipulate sth for sby’.

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rjóða ‘redden’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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Víð ‘Ruling extensive’

víðr (adj.): far < víðlendr (adj.): widely-landedvíðr (adj.): far < víðlendr (adj.): widely-landed

notes

[5] víðlendr ‘ruling extensive lands’: Lit. ‘broad-landed’.

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lendr ‘lands’

lendr (adj.): landed < víðlendr (adj.): widely-landed

[5] ‑lendr: ‑lend FskAˣ

notes

[5] víðlendr ‘ruling extensive lands’: Lit. ‘broad-landed’.

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of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[5] of (‘um’): ok 53

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verðungr ‘’

Close

vinda ‘draw’

2. vinda (verb): wind, twist

notes

[5] vinda ‘draw’: Strictly, ‘wind, twist, turn’, but the sense ‘draw’ is suggested by the preceding prose in Hkr and Fsk, which has Haraldr ordering his men to bregða sverðum sínum ‘draw their swords’ (cf. also LP: 2. vinda 2 and previous eds).

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verðung ‘the retinue’

verðung (noun f.): troop, retinue

[6] verðung: ‘verþing’ 54, Bb, verðungr FskBˣ

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Haraldr ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

[6] Haraldr: Haralds 39, F, Haraldar 62

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frǫgt ‘’

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frægt ‘glorious’

frægr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ri, superl. -jastr/-astr/-str): famous, renowned

[7] frægt: ‘frǫgt’ J2ˣ, frekt 53, Flat, frétt Bb, framm FskBˣ

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flot[…] ‘’

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flotnum ‘to seafarers’

flotnar (noun m.): mariners

[7] flotnum: ‘flot[…]’ 39, flótta FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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fylkis ‘of the leader’

fylkir (noun m.): leader

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Haraldr, on his way to Denmark to accept an offer of rights to revenues from King Haraldr Gormsson, is intercepted at Háls in Limafjǫrðr (Limfjorden) by Gull-Haraldr Knútsson, who has been encouraged by Hákon jarl Sigurðarson to seize the kingdom of Norway. Despite having the smaller force, Haraldr accepts the challenge to do battle.

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