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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 59VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 59’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 126.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
585960

hvern ‘everything’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[1] hvern: ‘hu[...]n’ B, ‘hu(er)n’(?) 399a‑bˣ

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gotna ‘for men’

gotnar (noun m.): men

Close

ramligs ‘of the strong’

rammligr (adj.): strong

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

ramligs ‘of the strong’

rammligr (adj.): strong

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

bús ‘homestead’

1. bú (noun n.; °-s, dat. -i/-(Landsl 39ˆ, DN III (1367) 279¹‡, DN XII (*1348›AM 902 a) 73³⁰); -): homestead

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

bús ‘homestead’

1. bú (noun n.; °-s, dat. -i/-(Landsl 39ˆ, DN III (1367) 279¹‡, DN XII (*1348›AM 902 a) 73³⁰); -): homestead

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

ræsi ‘the king’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[3] ramligs bús af ræsi: A strikingly similar l. occurs in Leið 43/7 ramligt hús, þars reistum. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 262) objects to the Christ-kenning ræsir bús rǫðuls ‘king of the dwelling of the sun’, as rǫðuls bú ‘sun’s dwelling’ is apparently without parallel in the skaldic corpus. Jón suggests that bús be emended to býs, which gives the Christ-kenning ræsir býs rǫðuls ‘king of the farm of the sun’, which occurs again at Líkn 19/3. The ms. reading is certain, and the Líkn kenning could well be an ‘embroidery’ on Has. There seems little justification for adopting Jón’s emendation here.

Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

rǫðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

ræsi ramligs bús rǫðuls
‘the king of the strong homestead of the sun ’
   = God

the strong homestead of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

Máría ‘Mary’

María (noun f.): Mary

Close

ǫðlask ‘obtain’

ǫðla (verb): gain

Close

Vest ‘be’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[5] vest ‘you are’: Normalisation of the ms. reading ‘vertu’ to vest is required if the metre and aðalhending are to be preserved. But compare 14/7 and 61/1, where the r-form is confirmed by the rhyme. The ms., as one would expect, always has r. The change is thought to have taken place in Iceland during the second half of C12th (ANG §§317.4, 498, Anm. 6), and it is likely either that Gamli’s own usage fluctuated between the <s>- and <r>-forms or that he exploited the instability of the phoneme by using an archaic form as and when his rhyme required one.

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ávalt ‘Always’

ávallt (adv.): always

Close

veg ‘of the honour’

2. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -): honour < vegstýrir (noun m.)

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary
Close

veg ‘of the honour’

2. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -): honour < vegstýrir (noun m.)

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary
Close

stýris ‘controller’

stýrir (noun m.): ruler, controller < vegstýrir (noun m.)

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary
Close

stýris ‘controller’

stýrir (noun m.): ruler, controller < vegstýrir (noun m.)

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary
Close

mér ‘to me’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[6] mér: ‘[...]’ B, ‘[...]er’ 399a‑bˣ

Close

mild ‘gentle’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary
Close

at ‘so that’

4. at (conj.): that

Close

aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

Close

móðir ‘mother’

móðir (noun f.): mother

[8] móðir *: ‘moder guds’ B

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[8] móðir * yðvars góða: B’s guðs is metrically otiose, and also, as indicated by the prose order above, semantically so. Its inclusion in B is probably best explained as a lapse by the copyist, distracted by the coexistence of the words Máría and móðir into writing the liturgical commonplace móðir guðs ‘mother of God’.

Close

* ‘’

(non-lexical)

[8] móðir *: ‘moder guds’ B

kennings

mild móðir * vegstýris,
‘gentle mother of the honour-controller, ’
   = Mary

the honour-controller, → God
gentle mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[8] móðir * yðvars góða: B’s guðs is metrically otiose, and also, as indicated by the prose order above, semantically so. Its inclusion in B is probably best explained as a lapse by the copyist, distracted by the coexistence of the words Máría and móðir into writing the liturgical commonplace móðir guðs ‘mother of God’.

Close

yðvars ‘your’

yðvarr (pron.; °f. yður; pl. yðrir): your

[8] yðvars: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘ydu[...]’ B

notes

[8] móðir * yðvars góða: B’s guðs is metrically otiose, and also, as indicated by the prose order above, semantically so. Its inclusion in B is probably best explained as a lapse by the copyist, distracted by the coexistence of the words Máría and móðir into writing the liturgical commonplace móðir guðs ‘mother of God’.

Close

góða ‘goodwill’

góði (noun m.): [goodwill]

notes

[8] móðir * yðvars góða: B’s guðs is metrically otiose, and also, as indicated by the prose order above, semantically so. Its inclusion in B is probably best explained as a lapse by the copyist, distracted by the coexistence of the words Máría and móðir into writing the liturgical commonplace móðir guðs ‘mother of God’.

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