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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 24VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 24’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 93-4.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
232425

aðrir ‘others’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

[1] aðrir: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘adr[...]’ B

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auð ‘’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth < auðbrjótr (noun m.): wealth-breaker

kennings

Auðbrjótr
‘The destroyer of riches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The destroyer of riches → GENEROUS MAN
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brjótr ‘The destroyer of riches’

brjótr (noun m.): breaker < auðbrjótr (noun m.): wealth-breaker

kennings

Auðbrjótr
‘The destroyer of riches ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

The destroyer of riches → GENEROUS MAN
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láðs ‘of the land’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[3] láðs: ‘ladr’ B

kennings

skepjandi ríkis láðs,
‘creator of the kingdom of the land, ’
   = God

the kingdom of the land, → EARTH
creator of the EARTH → God

notes

[3] láðs ‘of the land’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ and 1844, 20 n. 30) suggested emendation to gen. láðs, which has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

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láðs ‘of the land’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[3] láðs: ‘ladr’ B

kennings

skepjandi ríkis láðs,
‘creator of the kingdom of the land, ’
   = God

the kingdom of the land, → EARTH
creator of the EARTH → God

notes

[3] láðs ‘of the land’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ and 1844, 20 n. 30) suggested emendation to gen. láðs, which has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

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lǫstum ‘sins’

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skepjandi ‘creator’

skepjandi (noun m.): [creator]

kennings

skepjandi ríkis láðs,
‘creator of the kingdom of the land, ’
   = God

the kingdom of the land, → EARTH
creator of the EARTH → God
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ríkis ‘of the kingdom’

ríki (noun n.; °-s; -): kingdom, power

[4] ríkis: ríki B

kennings

skepjandi ríkis láðs,
‘creator of the kingdom of the land, ’
   = God

the kingdom of the land, → EARTH
creator of the EARTH → God

notes

[4] ríkis ‘of the kingdom’: In his prose arrangement in 444ˣ Sveinbjörn Egilsson retains B’s reading, ríki, which he takes to be the weak m. nom. sg. form of ríkr ‘powerful’, qualifying skepjandi. Kempff (1867, 37) also adopts this interpretation. There is no other example of the weak form of the adj. in such a vocative expression elsewhere in Has. In MIcel., too, the strong form is invariably used, as, for example, in such expressions as almáttigur guð ‘Almighty God’ or guð minn góður ‘my good God’. This edn therefore follows Finnur Jónsson in taking the ms.’s ‘ríki’ to represent ríki n. ‘kingdom, empire’ and emends to ríkis, governed by skepjandi (l. 4). Although there is not an exact parallel to the resultant earth-kenning láðs ríki (LP: ríki), a similar concept is found in common expressions like himinríki ‘kingdom of heaven’ and in the God-kenning konungr fróns ‘king of earth’ in Líkn 33/1-2, and there is no difficulty in characterising God as the creator (skepjandi) of either heaven or earth.

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ríkis ‘of the kingdom’

ríki (noun n.; °-s; -): kingdom, power

[4] ríkis: ríki B

kennings

skepjandi ríkis láðs,
‘creator of the kingdom of the land, ’
   = God

the kingdom of the land, → EARTH
creator of the EARTH → God

notes

[4] ríkis ‘of the kingdom’: In his prose arrangement in 444ˣ Sveinbjörn Egilsson retains B’s reading, ríki, which he takes to be the weak m. nom. sg. form of ríkr ‘powerful’, qualifying skepjandi. Kempff (1867, 37) also adopts this interpretation. There is no other example of the weak form of the adj. in such a vocative expression elsewhere in Has. In MIcel., too, the strong form is invariably used, as, for example, in such expressions as almáttigur guð ‘Almighty God’ or guð minn góður ‘my good God’. This edn therefore follows Finnur Jónsson in taking the ms.’s ‘ríki’ to represent ríki n. ‘kingdom, empire’ and emends to ríkis, governed by skepjandi (l. 4). Although there is not an exact parallel to the resultant earth-kenning láðs ríki (LP: ríki), a similar concept is found in common expressions like himinríki ‘kingdom of heaven’ and in the God-kenning konungr fróns ‘king of earth’ in Líkn 33/1-2, and there is no difficulty in characterising God as the creator (skepjandi) of either heaven or earth.

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Sókn ‘the battle’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sókndeilir (noun m.)

kennings

sókndeili*
‘the battle-dealer ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-dealer → WARRIOR

notes

[5] sókndeili* (dat. sg.) ‘the battle-dealer’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ and 1844, 21 n. 31) first proposed this emendation of B’s sókndeilir, which has been followed by all subsequent eds.

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deili* ‘-dealer’

deilir (noun m.): ruler, ordainer < sókndeilir (noun m.)

[5] ‑deili*: ‘‑deilerr’ B

kennings

sókndeili*
‘the battle-dealer ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-dealer → WARRIOR

notes

[5] sókndeili* (dat. sg.) ‘the battle-dealer’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ and 1844, 21 n. 31) first proposed this emendation of B’s sókndeilir, which has been followed by all subsequent eds.

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zt ‘you promised’

2. heita (verb): be called, promise

[5] zt: ‘he[...]’ B, ‘het’ 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘h(æt)’(?) BRydberg

notes

[5] zt ‘you promised’: This edn follows Jón Helgason (1935-6, 257) in taking veitir friðar ‘giver of peace’ as vocative, rather than as the subject of the verb heita, and reconstructs to hézt 2nd pers. sg. pret. of heita ‘to promise’, rather than the 3rd sg. hét. This arrangement makes for a better parallel with the first helmingr, where the appellation – as commonly in Has – is again vocative.

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sann ‘Truly’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true < sannvíss (adj.)

kennings

Sannvíss veitir friðar
‘Truly certain giver of peace ’
   = God

Truly certain giver of peace → God
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víss ‘certain’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly) < sannvíss (adj.)

kennings

Sannvíss veitir friðar
‘Truly certain giver of peace ’
   = God

Truly certain giver of peace → God
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paradísar ‘of Paradise’

paradís (noun f.; °-ar): paradise

notes

[6] paradísar ‘of paradise’: The first occurrence of this loan word in skaldic poetry (see LP: paradís).

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þín ‘of yours’

þinn (pron.; °f. þín, n. þitt): your

notes

[8] þín heit friðar veitir: A strikingly similar l. – sín heit friðar veitir – occurs at Pl 31/8.

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heit ‘promises’

heit (noun n.; °; -): promise

notes

[8] þín heit friðar veitir: A strikingly similar l. – sín heit friðar veitir – occurs at Pl 31/8.

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friðar ‘of peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

kennings

Sannvíss veitir friðar
‘Truly certain giver of peace ’
   = God

Truly certain giver of peace → God

notes

[8] þín heit friðar veitir: A strikingly similar l. – sín heit friðar veitir – occurs at Pl 31/8.

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veitir ‘giver’

veitir (noun m.): giver

kennings

Sannvíss veitir friðar
‘Truly certain giver of peace ’
   = God

Truly certain giver of peace → God

notes

[8] þín heit friðar veitir: A strikingly similar l. – sín heit friðar veitir – occurs at Pl 31/8.

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