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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 19VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 19’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 90.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
181920

mæztr ‘Most precious’

2. mærr (adj.): famous

kennings

Mæztr hildingr hauðrs,
‘Most precious prince of the earth, ’
   = God

Most precious prince of the earth, → God
Close

hauðrs ‘of the earth’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

kennings

Mæztr hildingr hauðrs,
‘Most precious prince of the earth, ’
   = God

Most precious prince of the earth, → God
Close

með ‘amongst’

með (prep.): with

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hildingr ‘prince’

hildingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

Mæztr hildingr hauðrs,
‘Most precious prince of the earth, ’
   = God

Most precious prince of the earth, → God
Close

mildri ‘a gentle’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous

[4] mildri: mildi B

notes

[4] mildri (f. dat. sg) ‘gentle’: If the adj. qualifies meyju (l. 1), the ms. reading must be emended (so Skj B, Skald and NN §2926). Sveinbjörn Egilsson (note to 444ˣ transcript), followed by Kempff, construes Mæztr hildingr mildi, þú vast borinn frá meyju í heim með lýðum ‘Most honoured king of gentleness, you were born of a maiden into the world with men’.

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alla ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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ágætr ‘Glorious’

ágætr (adj.; °compar. ágǽtari/ágǽtri, superl. ágǽtastr/ágǽztr): excellent

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God
Close

skrýðir ‘adorner’

skrýðir (noun m.): [adorner]

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

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skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

[7] skýja: so all others, ‘sk[...]ia’ B

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

Close

skýja ‘of the clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

[7] skýja: so all others, ‘sk[...]ia’ B

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

Close

slóðar ‘of the path’

slóð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path, track

[7, 8] slóðar skríns: ‘s[...]’ B, ‘slóðar ṣḳrins’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘sl(odar skrins)’(?) BRydberg, ‘sl(oð)ar s(k)rins’(?) BFJ

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

Close

slóðar ‘of the path’

slóð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): path, track

[7, 8] slóðar skríns: ‘s[...]’ B, ‘slóðar ṣḳrins’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘sl(odar skrins)’(?) BRydberg, ‘sl(oð)ar s(k)rins’(?) BFJ

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

Close

skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

[7, 8] slóðar skríns: ‘s[...]’ B, ‘slóðar ṣḳrins’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘sl(odar skrins)’(?) BRydberg, ‘sl(oð)ar s(k)rins’(?) BFJ

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

Close

skríns ‘of the shrine’

skrín (noun n.; °-s; -): shrine

[7, 8] slóðar skríns: ‘s[...]’ B, ‘slóðar ṣḳrins’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘sl(odar skrins)’(?) BRydberg, ‘sl(oð)ar s(k)rins’(?) BFJ

kennings

Ágætr skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja,
‘Glorious adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds, you ’
   = God

the shrine of the path of the clouds, you → HEAVEN
Glorious adorner of the HEAVEN → God

notes

[7-8] skrýðir skríns slóðar skýja ‘adorner of the shrine of the path of the clouds [HEAVEN > = God (= Christ)]’: A similar sun-kenning occurs in Leið 32/5-6 [skjǫlðungr] skríns skýja ‘[king] of the shrine of the clouds’. Although skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ is popular in later poetry, it does not seem to occur earlier than here (see LP: skrín).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Similar locutions for the Virgin occur in later skaldic accounts of the Annunciation and birth of Christ. Líkn 12/1-2, which most likely borrows from Leið and/or Has, has Sá baztr frá mey mæztri | mildingr beraz vildi ‘the best prince wished to be born from a most precious maiden’. The construction recurs in Anon Lil 24/5-6, where Gabriel is told fljúg ok seg það Máríu meyju | mætri ‘fly and say to the worthy maiden Mary...’, and in Gimsteinum 12/1 (ÍM II, 307) fæðist liet af meyju mætri ‘allowed himself to be born of the most honourable maiden’. — [1-4]: Cf. the account of the Nativity in Leið 23/3-4: mæztr frá meyju betri | mildingr [lét] berask hingað ‘the most praiseworthy prince [allowed] himself to be born here of the best maiden’.

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