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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 1VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 1’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 73-4.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
12

Hár ‘High’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[1] Hár: ‘[...]rr’ B, ‘[...]arr’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1] hár ‘high’: The beginning of this word is lost in a hole in B. The scribe’s usual practice was to leave a space for a larger initial to mark the beginning of the poem, and the indentation of ll. 42 and 43 by some 11mm suggests that this was also the case here. 399a-bˣ is certain of the second letter. — [1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

Hár ‘High’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[1] Hár: ‘[...]rr’ B, ‘[...]arr’ 399a‑bˣ

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1] hár ‘high’: The beginning of this word is lost in a hole in B. The scribe’s usual practice was to leave a space for a larger initial to mark the beginning of the poem, and the indentation of ll. 42 and 43 by some 11mm suggests that this was also the case here. 399a-bˣ is certain of the second letter. — [1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

stillir ‘ruler’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

lúk ‘open’

1. lúka (verb): end, close

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

hregg ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm < hreggtjald (noun n.)

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

hregg ‘of the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm < hreggtjald (noun n.)

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

tjalda ‘tents’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < hreggtjald (noun n.)

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

tjalda ‘tents’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning < hreggtjald (noun n.)

kennings

Hár stillir hreggtjalda,
‘High ruler of the storm-tents, ’
   = God

the storm-tents, → SKY/HEAVEN
High ruler of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] hár stillir hreggtjalda ‘high ruler of the storm-tents [SKY/HEAVEN > = GOD]’: The first in a series of kennings for God whose determinants contain circumlocutions for heaven involving hregg ‘storm, rain’, often with the adj. hár ‘high, exalted’. Cf., e.g., 5/5-6, 45/1-4 and 57/6-7. These kennings may be influenced by similar constructions in other Christian drápur, most notably Geisl, the text of which in Flat has jǫfurr hreggsalar ‘king of the storm-hall’ at 64/5-6, and Leið, which has three God-kennings with hreggrann ‘storm-house’ as the determinant (2/1-3, 17/1-2 and 25/5-6), the first two of which also contain hár. The relative complexity of the variations on the patterns in Has might indicate that the poem is somewhat later than, and influenced by, Leið (see Skard 1953, 101, 108 and the discussion of Skard’s analysis in Attwood 1996b, 236-7). That hregg- compounds were a particular favourite of Gamli’s is perhaps suggested by the appearance of jǫfurr hreggskríns ‘lord of the storm-shrine’ (so also in Anon Mgr 49/6) in his Jóndr 2/4.

Close

mér ‘for me’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

upp ‘up’

upp (adv.): up

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

allar ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

Close

skaptir ‘created’

2. skapa (verb): form

Close

óð ‘of poetry’

1. óðr (noun m.): poem < óðborg (noun f.)

[4] óð‑: so all others, ‘[...]’ B

kennings

hlið óðborgar
‘the gate of the fortress of poetry ’
   = MOUTH

the fortress of poetry → BREAST
the gate of the BREAST → MOUTH

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

óð ‘of poetry’

1. óðr (noun m.): poem < óðborg (noun f.)

[4] óð‑: so all others, ‘[...]’ B

kennings

hlið óðborgar
‘the gate of the fortress of poetry ’
   = MOUTH

the fortress of poetry → BREAST
the gate of the BREAST → MOUTH

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

borgar ‘of the fortress’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold < óðborg (noun f.)

kennings

hlið óðborgar
‘the gate of the fortress of poetry ’
   = MOUTH

the fortress of poetry → BREAST
the gate of the BREAST → MOUTH

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

borgar ‘of the fortress’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold < óðborg (noun f.)

kennings

hlið óðborgar
‘the gate of the fortress of poetry ’
   = MOUTH

the fortress of poetry → BREAST
the gate of the BREAST → MOUTH

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

hlið ‘the gate’

2. hlið (noun n.; °-s; -): gate

kennings

hlið óðborgar
‘the gate of the fortress of poetry ’
   = MOUTH

the fortress of poetry → BREAST
the gate of the BREAST → MOUTH

notes

[1-4] lúk mér upp hlið óðborgar ‘open up for me the gate of the fortress of poetry [BREAST > MOUTH]’: Paasche (1914a, 143) suggests that this striking image might be an echo of Col. IV.3 orantes simul et pro nobis ostium sermonis ad loquendum mysterium Christi ‘praying withal for us also, that God may open unto us a door of speech to speak the mystery of Christ’. The resemblance between the texts, however, is somewhat oblique, and Finnur Jónsson’s intimation (LH II, 114) that the phrase is original is doubtless correct.

Close

góðu ‘with good’

góðr (adj.): good

Close

svát ‘so that’

svát (conj.): so that, so as

[5] svát (‘suo at’): so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘suo [...]t’ B, ‘suo (a)t’(?) BRydberg

Close

mættik ‘I might’

mega (verb): may, might

Close

auka ‘augment’

1. auka (verb; °eykr; jók, jóku/juku): (str. intrans.) increase

[5] auka: so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘au[...]a’ B, ‘au(k)a’(?) BRydberg

Close

gný ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýlundr (noun m.)

[6] gnýlundum: ‘gný[...]unndum’ B, ‘gnýunndum’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘gnýiunndum’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

stála gnýlundum
‘din-trees of swords’
   = WARRIORS

the din of swords → BATTLE
trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6] gnýlundum (dat. pl.): Lit. ‘din-trees’. B is badly worn at this point, and one cannot be certain of the fourth letter. Finnur Jónsson and Rydberg read ‘gnýiunndum’ with confidence, while the 399a-bˣ copyist is certain of ‘gnýunndum’. There have been several attempts to make sense of this reading. Neither Sveinbjörn Egilsson nor Kempff saw any need to emend, both taking gnýundum stála to be a man-kenning, Sveinbjörn (1860, 257a) relating gnýundum to gnúa ‘to rub’ and Kempff (1867, 22) assuming it to derive from gnýja ‘to sound’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to gnýviðum (dat. pl.) ‘din-trees’. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252) rejects the interpretations of both Sveinbjörn and Kempff, and notes that, since the hole in B is over what previous eds read as an ‘i’, ‘there is nothing against our assuming that this letter was an “l”, the upper part of which is now missing’. Jón’s reconstruction, which is adopted here, is therefore in accord with the spirit of Finnur’s emendation but, as he says, ‘is closer to what survives than gnýviðum’. Although the cpd gnýlundum ‘din-trees’ is not otherwise attested, gnýlundum stála would be partially paralleled by the warrior-kenning lundr stála ‘tree of spears’, which occurs in a poorly-preserved lv. attributed to Bjhít Lv 15/6V (ÍF 3, 155).

Close

gný ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult < gnýlundr (noun m.)

[6] gnýlundum: ‘gný[...]unndum’ B, ‘gnýunndum’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘gnýiunndum’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

stála gnýlundum
‘din-trees of swords’
   = WARRIORS

the din of swords → BATTLE
trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6] gnýlundum (dat. pl.): Lit. ‘din-trees’. B is badly worn at this point, and one cannot be certain of the fourth letter. Finnur Jónsson and Rydberg read ‘gnýiunndum’ with confidence, while the 399a-bˣ copyist is certain of ‘gnýunndum’. There have been several attempts to make sense of this reading. Neither Sveinbjörn Egilsson nor Kempff saw any need to emend, both taking gnýundum stála to be a man-kenning, Sveinbjörn (1860, 257a) relating gnýundum to gnúa ‘to rub’ and Kempff (1867, 22) assuming it to derive from gnýja ‘to sound’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to gnýviðum (dat. pl.) ‘din-trees’. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252) rejects the interpretations of both Sveinbjörn and Kempff, and notes that, since the hole in B is over what previous eds read as an ‘i’, ‘there is nothing against our assuming that this letter was an “l”, the upper part of which is now missing’. Jón’s reconstruction, which is adopted here, is therefore in accord with the spirit of Finnur’s emendation but, as he says, ‘is closer to what survives than gnýviðum’. Although the cpd gnýlundum ‘din-trees’ is not otherwise attested, gnýlundum stála would be partially paralleled by the warrior-kenning lundr stála ‘tree of spears’, which occurs in a poorly-preserved lv. attributed to Bjhít Lv 15/6V (ÍF 3, 155).

Close

lundum ‘trees’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree < gnýlundr (noun m.)

[6] gnýlundum: ‘gný[...]unndum’ B, ‘gnýunndum’ 399a‑bˣ, ‘gnýiunndum’ BRydberg, BFJ

kennings

stála gnýlundum
‘din-trees of swords’
   = WARRIORS

the din of swords → BATTLE
trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[6] gnýlundum (dat. pl.): Lit. ‘din-trees’. B is badly worn at this point, and one cannot be certain of the fourth letter. Finnur Jónsson and Rydberg read ‘gnýiunndum’ with confidence, while the 399a-bˣ copyist is certain of ‘gnýunndum’. There have been several attempts to make sense of this reading. Neither Sveinbjörn Egilsson nor Kempff saw any need to emend, both taking gnýundum stála to be a man-kenning, Sveinbjörn (1860, 257a) relating gnýundum to gnúa ‘to rub’ and Kempff (1867, 22) assuming it to derive from gnýja ‘to sound’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to gnýviðum (dat. pl.) ‘din-trees’. Jón Helgason (1935-6, 252) rejects the interpretations of both Sveinbjörn and Kempff, and notes that, since the hole in B is over what previous eds read as an ‘i’, ‘there is nothing against our assuming that this letter was an “l”, the upper part of which is now missing’. Jón’s reconstruction, which is adopted here, is therefore in accord with the spirit of Finnur’s emendation but, as he says, ‘is closer to what survives than gnýviðum’. Although the cpd gnýlundum ‘din-trees’ is not otherwise attested, gnýlundum stála would be partially paralleled by the warrior-kenning lundr stála ‘tree of spears’, which occurs in a poorly-preserved lv. attributed to Bjhít Lv 15/6V (ÍF 3, 155).

Close

stála ‘of swords’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

kennings

stála gnýlundum
‘din-trees of swords’
   = WARRIORS

the din of swords → BATTLE
trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

stála ‘of swords’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

kennings

stála gnýlundum
‘din-trees of swords’
   = WARRIORS

the din of swords → BATTLE
trees of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

miska ‘for misdeeds’

miski (noun m.; °-a; -ar): [for misdeeds, mis]

notes

[7] miska bót ‘the remedy for misdeeds’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson and Finnur Jónsson both take bót as acc. sg. of bót ‘cure, remedy’ and connect it with miska, gen. sg. or pl. of miski ‘misdeed, offence’, as the object of auka, the subject of which is mjúk mál mín. In this, they are followed by Kock and Black (1971, 134). The present edn follows Kempff (1867, 1) in taking miska bót with mjúk mál mín as parallel objects of auka. It is clear from the general tone of Has, as well as from the lengthy confession in sts 7-17, that the entire poem is an act of penance, principally for Gamli but also for his hearers.

Close

bót ‘the remedy’

bót (noun f.; °-ar; bǿtr): compensation

notes

[7] miska bót ‘the remedy for misdeeds’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson and Finnur Jónsson both take bót as acc. sg. of bót ‘cure, remedy’ and connect it with miska, gen. sg. or pl. of miski ‘misdeed, offence’, as the object of auka, the subject of which is mjúk mál mín. In this, they are followed by Kock and Black (1971, 134). The present edn follows Kempff (1867, 1) in taking miska bót with mjúk mál mín as parallel objects of auka. It is clear from the general tone of Has, as well as from the lengthy confession in sts 7-17, that the entire poem is an act of penance, principally for Gamli but also for his hearers.

Close

mín ‘my’

minn (pron.; °f. mín, n. mitt): my

[8] mín fulltingi: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘mi[...]lltinge’ B

Close

fulltingi ‘help’

2. fullting (noun n.): help

[8] mín fulltingi: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘mi[...]lltinge’ B

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The title and authorship of the poem are given in a marginal note, in the scribal hand, beside ll. 42 and 43 of fol. 12r: ‘harmsol er gam|le orte ka|noke’. On Gamli, see Skald Biography.

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