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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 89VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 89’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 662-3.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
888990

hrein ‘of chastity’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure < hreinlífi (noun n.): chastity

notes

[1] hreinlífis ‘of chastity, virginity’: In the ON Eluc, the word translates Lat. virginitas (Eluc 1989, 153); in HómNo it translates castitas (Unger 1864, 31 and 55; HómNo, 17 and 29). A prayer to Mary in HómÍsl 1993, 90v addresses her as blóme hreínlifes ‘flower (or fruit) of chastity’.

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lífis ‘’

lífi (noun n.; °-s): life < hreinlífi (noun n.): chastity

notes

[1] hreinlífis ‘of chastity, virginity’: In the ON Eluc, the word translates Lat. virginitas (Eluc 1989, 153); in HómNo it translates castitas (Unger 1864, 31 and 55; HómNo, 17 and 29). A prayer to Mary in HómÍsl 1993, 90v addresses her as blóme hreínlifes ‘flower (or fruit) of chastity’.

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dygðar ‘of the virtue’

dyggð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): virtue

[1] dygðar: dygðug 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134), 41 8°ˣ(420), 705ˣ, 4892

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dúfa ‘the dove’

1. dúfa (noun f.; °-u; -ur, gen. -na): billow, wave

notes

[1] dúfa ‘dove’: Medieval authors associated the dove with chastity, perhaps inspired by the S. of S.: soror mea amica mea columba mea inmaculata mea ‘my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled’ (S. of S. V.2). Bede comments on this text: Columba ergo simplicitatem turtur indicat castitatem quia et columba simplicitatis et castitatis amator est turtur ita ut si coniugem casu perdiderit non alium ultra quaerere curet ‘Therefore the dove signifies simplicity, the turtledove signifies chastity, because the dove so loves simplicity and the turtledove chastity, that if the mate should happen to die, it does not desire to seek another’ (Hurst and Fraipoint 1955, 129-30) Cf. also the Speculum Virginum (Seyfarth 1990, 58).

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dóttir ‘daughter’

dóttir (noun f.; °dóttur, dat. dóttur/dǿtr/dóttir, acc. dóttur/dóttir, nom. dóttir/dóttur; dǿtr, gen. dǿtra (cf. [$1592$])): daughter

[2] dóttir: drótta Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[2] dóttir guðs ‘daughter of God’: An allusion to filia principis ‘daughter of the prince’ (S. of S. VII.1).

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guðs ‘of God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[2] guðs: konungs 622, hirðir Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[2] dóttir guðs ‘daughter of God’: An allusion to filia principis ‘daughter of the prince’ (S. of S. VII.1).

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[2] og: enn 622, 713, 4892, om. Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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lækning ‘healing’

lækning (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u; -ar): [healing]

notes

[2] lækning sótta ‘healing of sorrows’: See Note to 40/5. Lækning sótta echoes the popular Lat. epithet for Mary medicina dolorum (cf. AH 15, 129; 31, 145; 32, 87, 141; 46, 164, 183, 197, 251).

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sótta ‘of sicknesses’

sótt (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): illness

notes

[2] lækning sótta ‘healing of sorrows’: See Note to 40/5. Lækning sótta echoes the popular Lat. epithet for Mary medicina dolorum (cf. AH 15, 129; 31, 145; 32, 87, 141; 46, 164, 183, 197, 251).

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giftu ‘of good fortune’

1. gifta (noun f.): grace, fortune

notes

[3] vegr giftu ‘path of good fortune’: The epithet does not have analogues in either ON or Lat. poetry. Lat. hymns often use the epithet via vitae ‘path of life’ for Mary.

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vegr ‘path’

1. vegr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar/-ir, gen. -a/-na, acc. -a/-i/-u): way, path, side

notes

[3] vegr giftu ‘path of good fortune’: The epithet does not have analogues in either ON or Lat. poetry. Lat. hymns often use the epithet via vitae ‘path of life’ for Mary.

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geisli ‘light-beam’

geisli (noun m.): beam of light

[3] geisli: geislin 99a, 705ˣ, gimsteinn 41 8°ˣ(420)

notes

[3] geisli lofta ‘light-beam of the skies’: This epithet is likewise unusual. The image of a ray or beam of light is normally associated with Christ, in ON as well as in Lat. literature (cf. geisli miskunnar sólar ‘beam of the sun of mercy’ Geisl 1/6 etc.). In Lil 27/3, geisli sólar ‘ray of the sun’ is used of the archangel Gabriel. The meaning is more metaphorical (something like ‘shining example’) when geisli brúða ‘light-beam of women’ refers to S. Anastasia in Mey 42/6 and Íslands gǫfugr geisli ‘Iceland’s splendid beam’ to Bishop Guðmundr in Árni Gd, 67/1IV; perhaps it should be understood in a similar way here.

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lofta ‘of the skies’

loft (noun n.): air, sky

notes

[3] geisli lofta ‘light-beam of the skies’: This epithet is likewise unusual. The image of a ray or beam of light is normally associated with Christ, in ON as well as in Lat. literature (cf. geisli miskunnar sólar ‘beam of the sun of mercy’ Geisl 1/6 etc.). In Lil 27/3, geisli sólar ‘ray of the sun’ is used of the archangel Gabriel. The meaning is more metaphorical (something like ‘shining example’) when geisli brúða ‘light-beam of women’ refers to S. Anastasia in Mey 42/6 and Íslands gǫfugr geisli ‘Iceland’s splendid beam’ to Bishop Guðmundr in Árni Gd, 67/1IV; perhaps it should be understood in a similar way here.

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gim ‘jewel’

gim (noun n.): gem, jewel < gimsteinn (noun m.): jewel

[4] gimsteinn: geisli 41 8°ˣ(420)

notes

[4] gimsteinn brúða ‘jewel of women’: Cf. gimsteinn vífa ‘jewel of women’ 27/8 and Note.

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steinn ‘’

steinn (noun m.; °steins; steinar): stone, colour < gimsteinn (noun m.): jewel

[4] gimsteinn: geisli 41 8°ˣ(420)

notes

[4] gimsteinn brúða ‘jewel of women’: Cf. gimsteinn vífa ‘jewel of women’ 27/8 and Note.

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brúða ‘of women’

brúðr (noun f.; °brúðar, dat. & acc. brúði; brúðir): woman, bride

[4] brúða: lýða Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[4] gimsteinn brúða ‘jewel of women’: Cf. gimsteinn vífa ‘jewel of women’ 27/8 and Note.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] og: om. Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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drotning ‘queen’

dróttning (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-, acc. -u/-; -ar): queen

[4] drotning: jöfur Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[4] drotning himna ‘queen of the heavens’: The epithet regina cæli is a common title for Mary, perhaps most familiar from the Easter antiphon Regina cæli, lætare ‘Queen of heaven, rejoice’ (Brev. Nidr., h.iiiiv). Cf. also the Marian prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 91r: þu en ſę́la domina celi et terre ‘you are the blessed queen of heaven and earth’.

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himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

notes

[4] drotning himna ‘queen of the heavens’: The epithet regina cæli is a common title for Mary, perhaps most familiar from the Easter antiphon Regina cæli, lætare ‘Queen of heaven, rejoice’ (Brev. Nidr., h.iiiiv). Cf. also the Marian prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 91r: þu en ſę́la domina celi et terre ‘you are the blessed queen of heaven and earth’.

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guðs ‘God’s’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[5] guðs: gjafu Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134), þú guðs 41 8°ˣ(420)

notes

[5] guðs herbergi ‘God’s lodging’: Cf. e.g. the hymn Quæ est ista: Hæc est, in quo se reclinat / Rex, reclinatorium, / Viatori, dum declinat, / Hæc est diversorium / Caput super hanc inclinat / Non habens tugurium / Rex æternæ gloriæ; / Ha, quam dulcis est memoriæ, / Mater tam laudabilis ‘This is she, in whom the king reclines, the couch for the traveller, while he rests, this is the lodging where the king of eternal glory rests his head, not having a cottage; how sweet is the thought, mother so praiseworthy’ (AH 9, 58-9). The prayer to Mary in HómÍsl 1993, 90v calls her herbirge heilagſ anda ‘lodging of the Holy Spirit’. The sense is not just that Mary was filled with God or the Spirit in a general sense, but that she conceived her child by the Holy Spirit and thus became the Mother of God.

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herbergi ‘lodging’

herbergi (noun n.; °-s; -): lodging, bedroom, inn

notes

[5] guðs herbergi ‘God’s lodging’: Cf. e.g. the hymn Quæ est ista: Hæc est, in quo se reclinat / Rex, reclinatorium, / Viatori, dum declinat, / Hæc est diversorium / Caput super hanc inclinat / Non habens tugurium / Rex æternæ gloriæ; / Ha, quam dulcis est memoriæ, / Mater tam laudabilis ‘This is she, in whom the king reclines, the couch for the traveller, while he rests, this is the lodging where the king of eternal glory rests his head, not having a cottage; how sweet is the thought, mother so praiseworthy’ (AH 9, 58-9). The prayer to Mary in HómÍsl 1993, 90v calls her herbirge heilagſ anda ‘lodging of the Holy Spirit’. The sense is not just that Mary was filled with God or the Spirit in a general sense, but that she conceived her child by the Holy Spirit and thus became the Mother of God.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] og: om. Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134), ert 41 8°ˣ(420)

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gleyming ‘forgetting’

gleyming (noun f.): [forgetting]

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gleðinnar ‘of gladness’

gleði (noun f.): joy

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eyðing ‘elimination’

eyðing (noun f.): [elimination]

notes

[6] eyðing ‘elimination’: The word is not attested elsewhere in ON. See Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for its use in MIcel.

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æðr ‘vein’

1. æðr (noun f.; °-ar, dat./acc. ǽði; -ar): blood vessel

[7] æðr: auðr 41 8°ˣ(134)

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lífgan ‘life-giver’

lífgan (noun f.; °-anar): [life-giver]

[7] lífgan: leikning 622, ljósið Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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þjóða ‘of peoples’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[7] þjóða: fríða Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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loflig ‘praiseworthy’

lofligr (adj.): [praiseworthy]

[8] loflig: lofligr Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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mær ‘maiden’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

[8] mær þú ert einglum: næsta föðurnum Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

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þú ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[8] mær þú ert einglum: næsta föðurnum Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[8] þú ert hæri einglum ‘you are higher than the angels’: Cf the prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 90v: þu ert ꜵllom helgom helgare oc hǽri at verðleicom ‘you are holier than all the saints and more highly deserving’.

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ert ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[8] mær þú ert einglum: næsta föðurnum Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[8] þú ert hæri einglum ‘you are higher than the angels’: Cf the prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 90v: þu ert ꜵllom helgom helgare oc hǽri at verðleicom ‘you are holier than all the saints and more highly deserving’.

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einglum ‘than the angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

[8] mær þú ert einglum: næsta föðurnum Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134);    einglum: drotni 99a, sprundum 622, 41 8°ˣ(420)

notes

[8] þú ert hæri einglum ‘you are higher than the angels’: Cf the prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 90v: þu ert ꜵllom helgom helgare oc hǽri at verðleicom ‘you are holier than all the saints and more highly deserving’.

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hæri ‘higher’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[8] hæri: kæruzt 99a, kærstur Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134)

notes

[8] þú ert hæri einglum ‘you are higher than the angels’: Cf the prayer in HómÍsl 1993, 90v: þu ert ꜵllom helgom helgare oc hǽri at verðleicom ‘you are holier than all the saints and more highly deserving’.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The order of sts 89 and 90 is reversed in 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ(134), and 41 8°ˣ(420). — Sts 90/6-8, 89 and 91-6 appear in 41 8°ˣ, both in the main text of Lil, on pp. 134-6 and separately on pp. 420-2. For details, see the Introduction. Variant readings from both locations are given.

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