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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 71VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 71’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 642-3.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
707172

Upprísöndum ‘to the rising’

upprísa (verb): [to rising]

[1] Upprísöndum (‘Upp risaundum’): Upprísundum 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, Upprísendum 622

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allra ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

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íbyggjurum ‘inhabitants’

íbyggjari (noun m.): [inhabitants]

[2] íbyggjurum: so 99a, 622, 713, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, ‘ibygguer’ Bb, ‘íbyggerum’ Vb

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við ‘At’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[2] við: um 622

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Jésú ‘of Jesus’

Jésús (noun m.): Jesus

[3] Jésú: so 713, Jésús Bb, 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

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munu ‘will’

munu (verb): will, must

[3] munu: mun 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[3] þá: sín Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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sýnaz ‘be shown’

sýna (verb): show, seem

[3] sýnaz: sýna 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

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sút ‘’

1. sút (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow < súthrœrandi (adj.)

[4] súthrærandi: og sín hrærandi 622, 4892, sín hrærandi 713, og súthrærandi Vb, 41 8°ˣ, sitt hrærandi 705ˣ

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[4] súthrærandi ‘grievous’: Lit. ‘exciting grief’. The epithet can be applied either to sárin og píslafæri ‘wounds and instruments of torture’ or to Jésú. The alternative reading for sút, sín, yields the sentence Jésús hrærandi sín píslarfæri ‘Jesus, raising up his torture-tools, i.e. showing the instruments with which he was tortured’ (JH). The image is an allusion to Rev. I.7: ecce venit cum nubibus et videbit eum omnis oculus et qui eum pupugerunt et plangent se super eum omnes tribus terrae ‘behold, he cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see him: and they also that pierced him. And all the tribes of the earth shall bewail themselves because of him’. In medieval literature and art, this image is often expanded to include the showing of the instruments used to torture Jesus. Cf. similar treatments in Has 33/5-8 and Líkn 27.

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hrærandi ‘the grievous’

2. hrœra (verb): move < súthrœrandi (adj.)

[4] súthrærandi: og sín hrærandi 622, 4892, sín hrærandi 713, og súthrærandi Vb, 41 8°ˣ, sitt hrærandi 705ˣ

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[4] súthrærandi ‘grievous’: Lit. ‘exciting grief’. The epithet can be applied either to sárin og píslafæri ‘wounds and instruments of torture’ or to Jésú. The alternative reading for sút, sín, yields the sentence Jésús hrærandi sín píslarfæri ‘Jesus, raising up his torture-tools, i.e. showing the instruments with which he was tortured’ (JH). The image is an allusion to Rev. I.7: ecce venit cum nubibus et videbit eum omnis oculus et qui eum pupugerunt et plangent se super eum omnes tribus terrae ‘behold, he cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see him: and they also that pierced him. And all the tribes of the earth shall bewail themselves because of him’. In medieval literature and art, this image is often expanded to include the showing of the instruments used to torture Jesus. Cf. similar treatments in Has 33/5-8 and Líkn 27.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] og: om. 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[5] og: om. Vb, 4892

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hugsan ‘thoughts’

hugsun (noun f.; °hugsanar; hugsanir): [thoughts, Thought]

[5] hugsan: hugsan og 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892, huskan 705ˣ

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allar ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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gjörðir ‘deeds’

1. gerð (noun f.): deed

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kannaðar ‘probed’

3. kanna (verb): know, be able

[6] kannaðar: so 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, ‘kannadadar’ Bb, kannaðar þá 99a

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sem ‘as well as’

sem (conj.): as, which

[6] sem: og 4892

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hvörki ‘neither’

hvárgi (pron.): neither

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byrgjaz ‘will be excluded’

byrgja (verb; °-rgð-): lock

[8] byrgjaz: enn byrgjaz 99a

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gjafir ‘gifts’

gjǫf (noun f.): gift

[8] gjafir: gæfr Vb, gafur 41 8°ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Skj B and Skald follow a different interpretation, in which Jésús (l. 3) is the subject of the cl., the main verb is sg. and the dependent inf. active in voice (mun sýna ‘will show’). — [5-6]: An allusion to Rev. II.23: et scient omnes ecclesiae quia ego sum scrutans renes et corda et dabo unicuique vestrum secundum opera ‘and all the churches shall know that I am he that searcheth the reins and hearts. And I will give to every one of you according to your works’. The formula ‘I have sinned in thought, word, and deed’ was (and is) a standard liturgical formula, used both in the mass and the divine office (cf. Brev. Nidr., h.iiir: peccaui nimis in vita mea / cogitatione / locutione / opere / et omissione ‘I have sinned exceedingly in my life, in thought, in speech, in deed, and by omission’).

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