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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 52VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 52’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 621-2.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
515253

Er ‘is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] Er: Eru 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[1] er ‘is’: Both Skj B and Skald choose the majority mss’ pl. verb eru ‘are’. Eftirdæmi ‘example’ could be either sg. or pl., but the pl. sense ‘there are/will always be memorable examples’ does not fit the present context, which describes Christ’s unique and supreme example of self-sacrifice.

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æ ‘forever’

2. æ (adv.): always, forever

[1] æ: om. 99a, 622, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[1] æ ‘forever’: The adv., omitted in some mss, is necessary for the rhyme scheme (æ m- : -dæm-). Those mss that omit æ all have eru, a combination that also produces correct rhyme.

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minnilig ‘memorable’

minniligr (adj.): memorable

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yfir ‘of the supreme’

yfir (prep.): over < yfirvaldandi (noun m.)

[2] yfirvaldanda: yfirbjóðandi 99a, 622, 713, 705ˣ, 4892, að yfirbjóðandinn Vb, 41 8°ˣ

kennings

yfirvaldanda himins og landa
‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and lands ’
   = God

the supreme ruler of heaven and lands → God

notes

[2] yfirvaldanda himins og landa ‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and earth [= God (= Christ)]’: The same formula is used in 58/8. These two instances in Lil are the only attestations of the cpd yfirvaldandi, but see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for the analogous forms yfirvald and yfirvaldsmaður in MIcel.

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valdanda ‘ruler’

1. valdandi (noun m.): ruler < yfirvaldandi (noun m.)

[2] yfirvaldanda: yfirbjóðandi 99a, 622, 713, 705ˣ, 4892, að yfirbjóðandinn Vb, 41 8°ˣ

kennings

yfirvaldanda himins og landa
‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and lands ’
   = God

the supreme ruler of heaven and lands → God

notes

[2] yfirvaldanda himins og landa ‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and earth [= God (= Christ)]’: The same formula is used in 58/8. These two instances in Lil are the only attestations of the cpd yfirvaldandi, but see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for the analogous forms yfirvald and yfirvaldsmaður in MIcel.

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himins ‘of heaven’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

[2] himins: eingla 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

kennings

yfirvaldanda himins og landa
‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and lands ’
   = God

the supreme ruler of heaven and lands → God

notes

[2] yfirvaldanda himins og landa ‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and earth [= God (= Christ)]’: The same formula is used in 58/8. These two instances in Lil are the only attestations of the cpd yfirvaldandi, but see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for the analogous forms yfirvald and yfirvaldsmaður in MIcel.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

yfirvaldanda himins og landa
‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and lands ’
   = God

the supreme ruler of heaven and lands → God

notes

[2] yfirvaldanda himins og landa ‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and earth [= God (= Christ)]’: The same formula is used in 58/8. These two instances in Lil are the only attestations of the cpd yfirvaldandi, but see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for the analogous forms yfirvald and yfirvaldsmaður in MIcel.

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landa ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[2] landa: þjóða 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

kennings

yfirvaldanda himins og landa
‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and lands ’
   = God

the supreme ruler of heaven and lands → God

notes

[2] yfirvaldanda himins og landa ‘of the supreme ruler of heaven and earth [= God (= Christ)]’: The same formula is used in 58/8. These two instances in Lil are the only attestations of the cpd yfirvaldandi, but see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for the analogous forms yfirvald and yfirvaldsmaður in MIcel.

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hneigði ‘bent’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

[3] hneigði: beygði 99a

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‘now’

nú (adv.): now

[3] nú: hann 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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beygði ‘bowed’

2. beygja (verb; °beygði): bend down, twist

[3] beygði: vægði 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[3] beygði ‘bowed’: So Bb. All other mss have vægði, from vægja ‘to give way, yield’.

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er ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[4] er: em 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

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lysti ‘desired’

lysta (verb): desire

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‘little’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few < fátalaðr (adj.)

notes

[5] fátalaðr ‘little-speaking’: Understatement: Jesus was silent before Pilate and his accusers (Matt. XXVII.12-14, Mark XV.3-5, John XIX.9). Kock found the word too short for the metre and proposed fámálugr (NN §2629F), but later discovered that this emendation spoiled the rhyme and proposed instead fátalandi, a reading not supported by any ms. In Skald, however, he retains fátalaðr.

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talaðr ‘saying’

3. tala (verb): speak, talk < fátalaðr (adj.)

notes

[5] fátalaðr ‘little-speaking’: Understatement: Jesus was silent before Pilate and his accusers (Matt. XXVII.12-14, Mark XV.3-5, John XIX.9). Kock found the word too short for the metre and proposed fámálugr (NN §2629F), but later discovered that this emendation spoiled the rhyme and proposed instead fátalandi, a reading not supported by any ms. In Skald, however, he retains fátalaðr.

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lítillæti ‘humility’

lítillæti (noun n.): humility

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lág ‘softly’

lágr (adj.; °comp. lǽgri, superl. lǽgstr): low < lágraustaðr (adj.)

[6] lágraustaðr: og lágraustaðr 99a, 705ˣ

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raustaðr ‘spoken’

rausta (verb): [spoken] < lágraustaðr (adj.)

[6] lágraustaðr: og lágraustaðr 99a, 705ˣ

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fagri ‘a fair’

fagr (adj.; °fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr): fair, beautiful

[6] fagri: fagra 99a, 622, 713, trausta Vb, 41 8°ˣ, ‘[...]agra’ 4892

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svá ‘thus’

svá (adv.): so, thus

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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bjóðandi ‘offering’

bjóða (verb; °býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)): offer, order, invite

[7] bjóðandi: bjóðandi í 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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sínum ‘in his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

[7] sínum: so 622, 41 8°ˣ, sáran Bb, sárum Vb, 4892, í sáran 705ˣ

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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dauða ‘death’

dauði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): death

[7] dauða: dáða 4892

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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sína ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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önd ‘soul’

2. ǫnd (noun f.; °andar, dat. ǫnd/ǫndu; andir): soul, breath

notes

[7-8] svá bjóðandi önd sína sínum dauða ‘thus offering his soul in his death’: This reading follows 622 and 418°ˣ. Bb’s sáran is acc. and a dat. is required with bjóða in the sense of offering something to someone. Some mss add an í ‘in’ before sáran dauða, and this is adopted by both Skj B and Skald.

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[6]: The rhyme is between lágr- and fagr-. For other examples of full rhyme between long and short vowels, see the use of dýrð in 14/2, 68/8, and 74/2. JH notes that the poet sporadically shortens vowels preceding a consonant cluster.

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