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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 34VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 34’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 602-3.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
333435

Eingin ‘None’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

[1] Eingin: Eingi 713

notes

[1] eingin heyrðuz ‘none have been heard’: See Curtius 1953, 162-6 on topics of outdoing.

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heyrðuz ‘have been heard’

2. heyra (verb): hear

[1] heyrðuz: heyrði og 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[1] eingin heyrðuz ‘none have been heard’: See Curtius 1953, 162-6 on topics of outdoing.

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eingi ‘not’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

[1] eingi: eingin 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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tíðindin ‘tidings’

tíðendi (noun n.; °; -): news

[2] tíðindin: tíðindi 713

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nie ‘nor’

né (conj.): nor

[2] nie: so 99a, 622, 713, 705ˣ, 4892, om. Bb, og Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[2] nie síðar ‘nor since’: fyrr occurs at the end of a l. in Bb, and the omission of nie síðar appears to be a careless error. Without the words the l. lacks three syllables.

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síðar ‘since’

síðarr (adv.): later

[2] síðar: so 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, om. Bb

notes

[2] nie síðar ‘nor since’: fyrr occurs at the end of a l. in Bb, and the omission of nie síðar appears to be a careless error. Without the words the l. lacks three syllables.

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bæði ‘both’

báðir (pron.; °gen. beggja (báðra), nom./acc. n. bǽði): both

[3] bæði: að bæði Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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því ‘because’

því (adv.): therefore, because

[3] því: að 99a, 705ˣ, var 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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mær ‘maid’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

[3] mær: mey 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, því að 4892

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móður ‘mother’

móðir (noun f.): mother

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mann ‘man’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

[4] mann: og mann Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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trúan ‘faith’

1. trúa (noun f.; °trú): faith, belief

[4] trúan: trúað 622, truna 4892

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[4] að: om. Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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sanna ‘the same’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true

notes

[4]: Cf. trúa mann ok guð sannan (Líkn 24/8).

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Loftin ‘The heavens’

loft (noun n.): air, sky

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sungu ‘sang’

syngja (verb): sing

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kóngi ‘for the king’

kóngr (noun m.): king

notes

[5] kóngi ‘king’: The form is necessary for the rhyme with sungu ‘sang’.

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kunnigt ‘well-known’

kunnigr (adj.; °acc. kunngan/kunnigan; compar. -ari; superl. -astr): known

[6] kunnigt: kunnugt Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892, kunnig 705ˣ

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er ‘where’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] er: om. 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 4892

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hirðar ‘shepherds’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

[6] hirðar: so 99a, 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, hirðir Bb, ‘h[...]’ 713

notes

[6] hirðar ‘shepherds’: It is necessary to adopt hirðar here (rather than Bb’s hirðir, nom. sg.), as the verb is pl.

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runnu ‘ran about’

2. renna (verb): run (strong)

[6] runnu: unnu Vb, 4892

notes

[6] runnu ‘ran about’: Lit. ‘ran’, but the sense is ‘moved about’, ‘performed their work’.

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himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

notes

[7] himna dýrðin hneigð á jörðu ‘of the heavens the glory [has] sunk down on earth’: This is the reading of Bb, and lacks a finite verb. Skj B and Skald follow a number of mss in reading himna dýrð er hneigð at jǫrðu ‘the glory of the heavens has sunk down to the earth’.

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dýrðin ‘the glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

[7] dýrðin: dýrð er 99a, 622, 713, 705ˣ, 4892, dýrð var Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[7] himna dýrðin hneigð á jörðu ‘of the heavens the glory [has] sunk down on earth’: This is the reading of Bb, and lacks a finite verb. Skj B and Skald follow a number of mss in reading himna dýrð er hneigð at jǫrðu ‘the glory of the heavens has sunk down to the earth’.

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hneigð ‘sunk’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

[7] hneigð: hengið 41 8°ˣ

notes

[7] himna dýrðin hneigð á jörðu ‘of the heavens the glory [has] sunk down on earth’: This is the reading of Bb, and lacks a finite verb. Skj B and Skald follow a number of mss in reading himna dýrð er hneigð at jǫrðu ‘the glory of the heavens has sunk down to the earth’.

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á ‘down’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[7] á: að 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ

notes

[7] himna dýrðin hneigð á jörðu ‘of the heavens the glory [has] sunk down on earth’: This is the reading of Bb, and lacks a finite verb. Skj B and Skald follow a number of mss in reading himna dýrð er hneigð at jǫrðu ‘the glory of the heavens has sunk down to the earth’.

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jörðu ‘on earth’

jǫrð (noun f.; °jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)): ground, earth

notes

[7] himna dýrðin hneigð á jörðu ‘of the heavens the glory [has] sunk down on earth’: This is the reading of Bb, and lacks a finite verb. Skj B and Skald follow a number of mss in reading himna dýrð er hneigð at jǫrðu ‘the glory of the heavens has sunk down to the earth’.

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hier ‘here’

hér (adv.): here

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sam ‘’

samr (adj.; °compar. -ari): same < samtengja (verb)

notes

[8]: The rhyme is between -eing- (samteingduz) and eing- (einglar) (JH).

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teingduz ‘were united’

tengja (verb): unite, join < samtengja (verb)

notes

[8]: The rhyme is between -eing- (samteingduz) and eing- (einglar) (JH).

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einglar ‘angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

notes

[8]: The rhyme is between -eing- (samteingduz) and eing- (einglar) (JH).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: Cf. Luke II.8-14: et pastores erant in regione eadem vigilantes et custodientes vigilias noctis supra gregem suum et ecce angelus Domini stetit iuxta illos et claritas Dei circumfulsit illos et timuerunt timore magno … et subito facta est cum angelo multitudo militiae caelestis laudantium Deum et dicentium gloria in altissimis Deo et in terra pax in hominibus bonae voluntatis ‘And there were in the same country shepherds watching and keeping the night watches over their flock. And behold an angel of the Lord stood by them and the brightness of God shone round about them: and they feared with a great fear … And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God and saying: Glory to God in the highest: and on earth peace to men of good will’. — [5-8]: In Vb, 41ˣ, and 4892, ll. 1-4 of st. 35 follow ll. 1-4 of st. 34, followed by ll. 5-8 of st. 34 and ll. 5-8 of st. 35.

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