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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 31VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 31’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 598-9.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
303132

Loftin ‘the heavens’

loft (noun n.): air, sky

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öll ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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fyllaz ‘are filled’

fylla (verb): fill

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legir ‘the waters’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea

[2] legir: leiðir 720a VIII, leir 41 8°ˣ, 4892

notes

[2] legir á grundu stóðu ‘the waters on the earth stood’: So Bb. Other mss read legir og grund þau stóðu ‘the waters and the earth, they stood’ and this reading is adopted by Skj B and Skald.

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á: og 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892

notes

[2] legir á grundu stóðu ‘the waters on the earth stood’: So Bb. Other mss read legir og grund þau stóðu ‘the waters and the earth, they stood’ and this reading is adopted by Skj B and Skald.

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grundu ‘the earth’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

[2] grundu: grundar 720a VIII, grund þau 99a, 622, 713, 705ˣ, grund það Vb, 41 8°ˣ, grund þá 4892

notes

[2] legir á grundu stóðu ‘the waters on the earth stood’: So Bb. Other mss read legir og grund þau stóðu ‘the waters and the earth, they stood’ and this reading is adopted by Skj B and Skald.

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stóðu ‘stood’

standa (verb): stand

[2] stóðu: stóð Vb, 4892

notes

[2] legir á grundu stóðu ‘the waters on the earth stood’: So Bb. Other mss read legir og grund þau stóðu ‘the waters and the earth, they stood’ and this reading is adopted by Skj B and Skald.

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kúguð ‘compelled’

kúga (verb): force

[3] kúguð: kúgan 99a

notes

[3] kúguð af nógu ‘compelled to give up its sufficiency’: See Fritzner: kúga: kúga e-t af e-m dvs. aftvinge en noget, tvinge en til at slippe eller afstaa noget ‘take something from someone by force, compel someone to let go of or surrender something’.

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sjálf ‘itself’

sjalfr (adj.): self

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af ‘’

af (prep.): from

[3] af: svá 99a, 713, Vb, 4892, enn 622, 705ˣ

notes

[3] kúguð af nógu ‘compelled to give up its sufficiency’: See Fritzner: kúga: kúga e-t af e-m dvs. aftvinge en noget, tvinge en til at slippe eller afstaa noget ‘take something from someone by force, compel someone to let go of or surrender something’.

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nógu ‘sufficiently’

gnógr (adj.; °compar. gnógari/gnǿgri, superl. gnógastr/gnǿgstr): abundant

notes

[3] kúguð af nógu ‘compelled to give up its sufficiency’: See Fritzner: kúga: kúga e-t af e-m dvs. aftvinge en noget, tvinge en til at slippe eller afstaa noget ‘take something from someone by force, compel someone to let go of or surrender something’.

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mátti ‘able to help’

mega (verb): may, might

[4] mátti: málti 4892

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Giftiz ‘was wed’

2. gifta (verb): marry

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801).

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öndin ‘soul’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801).

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guð ‘of the God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God < guðdómr (noun m.): God’s dominion

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801).

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dóms ‘head’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix) < guðdómr (noun m.): God’s dominion

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801).

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krafti ‘to the power’

1. kraftr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/- ; -ar): power

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801).

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góð ‘The good’

góðr (adj.): good

[6] góð: góðu 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 705ˣ, góðrar Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801). — [6] góð (f. nom. sg.) ‘good’: Agrees with öndin ‘the good soul’; the majority of mss have góðu (n. dat. sg.) ‘good’, which must be construed with blóði Máríu ‘the blood of Mary’; so Skj B and Skald but cf. Schottmann 1973, 231.

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góð ‘The good’

góðr (adj.): good

[6] góð: góðu 720a VIII, 99a, 622, 705ˣ, góðrar Vb, 41 8°ˣ

notes

[5] góð öndin giftiz krafti guðdóms ‘the good soul was wed to the power of the Godhead’: This refers to the human soul of Christ and reflects traditional christological doctrine, first formally defined by the Council of Ephesus in 431. The doctrine was reaffirmed by the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215: Et tandem unigenitus Dei Filius Iesus Christus, a tota Trinitate commuiter incarnatus, ex Maria semper Virgine Spiritus Sancti cooperatione conceptus, verus homo factus, ex anima rationali et humana carne compositus, una in duabus naturis persona, viam vitae manifestius demonstravit ‘Finally, the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whose Incarnation is the common work of the whole Trinity, conceived of the ever-virgin Mary through the work of the Holy Spirit, made true man, composed of a rational soul and human flesh, one person in two natures, showed more manifestly the way of life’ (Denzinger and Schönmetzer 1965, §801). — [6] góð (f. nom. sg.) ‘good’: Agrees with öndin ‘the good soul’; the majority of mss have góðu (n. dat. sg.) ‘good’, which must be construed with blóði Máríu ‘the blood of Mary’; so Skj B and Skald but cf. Schottmann 1973, 231.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[6] og: om. 720a VIII, 99a, Vb, 705ˣ

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huldiz ‘hid itself’

2. hylja (verb): to bury, cover, inhume

notes

[6] huldiz ‘hid itself’: Cf. Has 18/5-6.

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Máríu ‘of Mary’

María (noun f.): Mary

notes

[6] blóði Máríu ‘in the blood of Mary’: A metonymy for her human body. Cf. the same image in 67/8 and 83/6. The Oratio ad Deum Filium ‘Prayer to God the Son’ of Peter Damian (Petrus Damianus, col. 921) expresses the theological idea behind this: Te materiam Sapientia coelestis habuit, unde templum sui corporis fabricavit ‘Wisdom from on high took you [Mary] as the matter from which he made the temple of his body’.

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blóði ‘in the blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

notes

[6] blóði Máríu ‘in the blood of Mary’: A metonymy for her human body. Cf. the same image in 67/8 and 83/6. The Oratio ad Deum Filium ‘Prayer to God the Son’ of Peter Damian (Petrus Damianus, col. 921) expresses the theological idea behind this: Te materiam Sapientia coelestis habuit, unde templum sui corporis fabricavit ‘Wisdom from on high took you [Mary] as the matter from which he made the temple of his body’.

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glaðrar ‘of the joyful’

2. glaðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): cheerful, glad

[7] glaðrar: glaður 622, glaður corrected from ‘glaðrar’ 705ˣ

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jungfrú ‘virgin’

jungfrú (noun f.): maiden, virgin

[7] jungfrú: jungfrúr 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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ein ‘one’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

notes

[8] ein persóna þrennrar greinar ‘one person of the threefold branch’: One of the three persons (the theological term for God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit) who make up the three ‘branches’ of the Trinity. The epithet is tautological: it is the equivalent of ‘one person of the three persons’ or ‘one branch of the three branches’. Cf. HómÍsl 1993, 29v: …guþ fꜵþor almátkan. oc ſun oc anda helgan. Þriár greiner oc eitt veʟde ‘God the Father almighty, and Son and Holy Spirit: three branches and one authority’.

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persóna ‘person’

persóna (noun f.; °-u; -ur): [person, persons]

[8] persóna: persónan 99a, 713, persóna í 622

notes

[8] ein persóna þrennrar greinar ‘one person of the threefold branch’: One of the three persons (the theological term for God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit) who make up the three ‘branches’ of the Trinity. The epithet is tautological: it is the equivalent of ‘one person of the three persons’ or ‘one branch of the three branches’. Cf. HómÍsl 1993, 29v: …guþ fꜵþor almátkan. oc ſun oc anda helgan. Þriár greiner oc eitt veʟde ‘God the Father almighty, and Son and Holy Spirit: three branches and one authority’.

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þrennrar ‘of the threefold’

þrennr (adj.): three(fold)

[8] þrennrar: þrennra 99a, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, þrennum 622

notes

[8] ein persóna þrennrar greinar ‘one person of the threefold branch’: One of the three persons (the theological term for God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit) who make up the three ‘branches’ of the Trinity. The epithet is tautological: it is the equivalent of ‘one person of the three persons’ or ‘one branch of the three branches’. Cf. HómÍsl 1993, 29v: …guþ fꜵþor almátkan. oc ſun oc anda helgan. Þriár greiner oc eitt veʟde ‘God the Father almighty, and Son and Holy Spirit: three branches and one authority’.

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greinar ‘branch’

grein (noun f.): reason, period, branch

[8] greinar: greina 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, greinum 622

notes

[8] ein persóna þrennrar greinar ‘one person of the threefold branch’: One of the three persons (the theological term for God the Father, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit) who make up the three ‘branches’ of the Trinity. The epithet is tautological: it is the equivalent of ‘one person of the three persons’ or ‘one branch of the three branches’. Cf. HómÍsl 1993, 29v: …guþ fꜵþor almátkan. oc ſun oc anda helgan. Þriár greiner oc eitt veʟde ‘God the Father almighty, and Son and Holy Spirit: three branches and one authority’.

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