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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eþver Lv 1I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr þveræingr Eyjólfsson, Lausavísa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 804.

Einarr þveræingr EyjólfssonLausavísa1

Trautt ‘reluctant’

trauðr (adj.): reluctant

notes

[1] erumk trautt ‘I am reluctant’: Lit. ‘it is unwelcome to us’. 

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erumk ‘I am’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[1] erumk trautt ‘I am reluctant’: Lit. ‘it is unwelcome to us’. 

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konungs ‘the king’s’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[2] konungs: konungsins 61

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gramr ‘the prince is’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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arna ‘travel’

árna (verb; °-að-): gain, travel

notes

[3] arna ‘to travel’: The verb occurs with both long and short vowel (ANG §127.1), but the aðalhending on gjarn ‘eager’ in Anon Liðs 3/2 favours the short variant there, and possibly here also. This seems to be the weak verb árna/arna ‘travel (as an envoy), wander’, but the juxtaposition of árna Grímsey seems to pun on its commoner homophone, árna ‘gain, achieve’, referring to Óláfr Haraldsson’s territorial ambitions. 

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Grímsey ‘Grímsey’

Grímsey (noun f.): Grímsey

notes

[4] Grímsey: Island in the extreme north of Iceland, situated on the Arctic Circle.

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of ‘over’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[4] of: und 61

notes

[4] of trǫð fleyja ‘over the path of vessels [SEA]’: Ms. und would yield the sense (or rather nonsense) ‘under the sea’, and emendation to um, hence normalised of ‘over’, has been generally accepted.

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trǫð ‘the path’

trǫð (noun f.; °traðar; traðir): path

kennings

trǫð fleyja.
‘the path of vessels. ’
   = SEA

the path of vessels. → SEA

notes

[4] of trǫð fleyja ‘over the path of vessels [SEA]’: Ms. und would yield the sense (or rather nonsense) ‘under the sea’, and emendation to um, hence normalised of ‘over’, has been generally accepted.

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fleyja ‘of vessels’

2. fley (noun n.; °-s): ship

kennings

trǫð fleyja.
‘the path of vessels. ’
   = SEA

the path of vessels. → SEA

notes

[4] of trǫð fleyja ‘over the path of vessels [SEA]’: Ms. und would yield the sense (or rather nonsense) ‘under the sea’, and emendation to um, hence normalised of ‘over’, has been generally accepted.

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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

stýri hildar;
‘the controller of battle; ’
   = WARRIOR

the controller of battle; → WARRIOR
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stýri ‘the controller’

stýrir (noun m.): ruler, controller

kennings

stýri hildar;
‘the controller of battle; ’
   = WARRIOR

the controller of battle; → WARRIOR
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holm ‘of the islet’

holmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): island, islet < holmgjǫrð (noun f.)

kennings

nagla holmgjarðar
‘the stud of the islet-belt ’
   = ISLAND

the islet-belt → SEA
the stud of the SEA → ISLAND

notes

[7, 8] nagla holmgjarðar ‘the stud of the islet-belt [SEA > ISLAND]’: The slight emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1892, 94) is contextually necessary, and produces a phrasing so reminiscent of Egill Lv 43/7-8V (Eg 123) eyneglð gjǫrð jarðar ‘island-studded belt of the land [SEA]’ that direct influence seems likely. LP: eyneglðr also points out that nagli ‘nail, stud’ appears in the name of a Norwegian skerry (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 221).

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holm ‘of the islet’

holmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): island, islet < holmgjǫrð (noun f.)

kennings

nagla holmgjarðar
‘the stud of the islet-belt ’
   = ISLAND

the islet-belt → SEA
the stud of the SEA → ISLAND

notes

[7, 8] nagla holmgjarðar ‘the stud of the islet-belt [SEA > ISLAND]’: The slight emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1892, 94) is contextually necessary, and produces a phrasing so reminiscent of Egill Lv 43/7-8V (Eg 123) eyneglð gjǫrð jarðar ‘island-studded belt of the land [SEA]’ that direct influence seems likely. LP: eyneglðr also points out that nagli ‘nail, stud’ appears in the name of a Norwegian skerry (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 221).

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gjarðar ‘belt’

gjǫrð (noun f.): girdle < holmgjǫrð (noun f.)

[7] ‑gjarðar: ‑gerðar 61

kennings

nagla holmgjarðar
‘the stud of the islet-belt ’
   = ISLAND

the islet-belt → SEA
the stud of the SEA → ISLAND

notes

[7, 8] nagla holmgjarðar ‘the stud of the islet-belt [SEA > ISLAND]’: The slight emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1892, 94) is contextually necessary, and produces a phrasing so reminiscent of Egill Lv 43/7-8V (Eg 123) eyneglð gjǫrð jarðar ‘island-studded belt of the land [SEA]’ that direct influence seems likely. LP: eyneglðr also points out that nagli ‘nail, stud’ appears in the name of a Norwegian skerry (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 221).

Close

gjarðar ‘belt’

gjǫrð (noun f.): girdle < holmgjǫrð (noun f.)

[7] ‑gjarðar: ‑gerðar 61

kennings

nagla holmgjarðar
‘the stud of the islet-belt ’
   = ISLAND

the islet-belt → SEA
the stud of the SEA → ISLAND

notes

[7, 8] nagla holmgjarðar ‘the stud of the islet-belt [SEA > ISLAND]’: The slight emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1892, 94) is contextually necessary, and produces a phrasing so reminiscent of Egill Lv 43/7-8V (Eg 123) eyneglð gjǫrð jarðar ‘island-studded belt of the land [SEA]’ that direct influence seems likely. LP: eyneglðr also points out that nagli ‘nail, stud’ appears in the name of a Norwegian skerry (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 221).

Close

fremsk ‘advances himself’

fremja (verb): advance, perform

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hagli ‘by the hail’

hagl (noun n.; °-s; dat. *-um): hail

kennings

hagli peitu.
‘by the hail of the spear.’
   = BATTLE

by the hail of the spear. → BATTLE
Close

peitu ‘of the spear’

peita (noun f.): spear

[8] peitu: ‘peitv’ or ‘pettv’ 61

kennings

hagli peitu.
‘by the hail of the spear.’
   = BATTLE

by the hail of the spear. → BATTLE

notes

[8] peitu ‘of the spear’: The kenning requires this form, although the 61 reading is slightly doubtful; Árni Magnússon in 761bˣ transcribed it as pettu. The word may originally have referred to prestige weaponry from Poitou (see Note to Arn Hryn 9/8II).

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nagla ‘the stud’

nagl (noun m.; °dat. -i; negl): nail

kennings

nagla holmgjarðar
‘the stud of the islet-belt ’
   = ISLAND

the islet-belt → SEA
the stud of the SEA → ISLAND

notes

[7, 8] nagla holmgjarðar ‘the stud of the islet-belt [SEA > ISLAND]’: The slight emendation, first proposed by Konráð Gíslason (1892, 94) is contextually necessary, and produces a phrasing so reminiscent of Egill Lv 43/7-8V (Eg 123) eyneglð gjǫrð jarðar ‘island-studded belt of the land [SEA]’ that direct influence seems likely. LP: eyneglðr also points out that nagli ‘nail, stud’ appears in the name of a Norwegian skerry (Rygh et al. 1897-1936, XII, 221).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH (1941, I, 326-9) and Hkr (ÍF 27, 215-7), Þórarinn Nefjólfsson at the Icelandic alþingi declaims a message from King Óláfr Haraldsson that he wishes to annex the island of Grímsey in exchange for friendship and unspecified benefits. The men of the Northern quarter are most affected and, swayed in their discussion by Guðmundr Eyjólfsson of Möðruvellir, incline to accept, but then his brother Einarr, in a now-famous speech about Iceland’s past and future freedom, swings opinion against the bid. Only in 61 does he also recite the stanza.

[2]: An aðalhending involving leið ‘hateful’ and reiði ‘anger’ is also the basis for Hfr Lv 9/6V (Hallfr 12) and Stefnir Lv 2/2.

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